The costs of participating in restructured wholesale markets
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The Costs of Participating in Restructured Wholesale Markets. American Public Power Association February 5, 2007 William M. Bateman Robert C. Smith. Introduction. The presentation is an overview of the study.

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The costs of participating in restructured wholesale markets

The Costs of Participating in Restructured Wholesale Markets

American Public Power Association

February 5, 2007

William M. Bateman

Robert C. Smith


Introduction

Introduction

  • The presentation is an overview of the study.

  • Study examined operational and administrative cost of 6 FERC Approved Regional Transmission Organizations (“RTO”).

    • Southwest Power Pool (“SPP”)

    • California ISO (“CAISO”)

    • ISO New England (“ISO-NE”)

    • Midwest ISO (“MISO”)

    • New York ISO (“NYISO”)

    • PJM Interconnection (“PJM”)


Regional transmission organization rto

Regional Transmission Organization(RTO)

  • Created in Order 2000 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) to further the Commission’s goal of creating competitive wholesale electric markets.

  • RTOs are independent organizations that are responsible for the operation and reliability of the grid.

  • Three Stages of Development

    • Pre-Day 1

    • Day 1

    • Day 2


Relative sizes of rtos

Relative Sizes of RTOs


Rto cost recovery

RTO Cost Recovery

  • Costs are recovered through FERC approved charges in the RTO’s tariff.

  • Charges are generally assessed on a per megawatt-hour basis.

  • Mix of “Formula Rates” and “Stated Rates”.

  • The number and type of charges vary widely among the RTOs.

  • Some RTOs have one or two cost recovery mechanisms, or schedules, while others have a dozen or more.


Study methodology

Study Methodology

  • The study examined RTO costs for 2001-2005.

  • Cost data taken from FERC Form 1 filed by each RTO.

  • Each cost examined to determine how much it contributed the RTOs overall cost.

  • Cost classified as either Operational or Administrative.

    • Operational costs are costs related to running the grid.

    • Administrative costs are other costs incurred by the RTOs.

  • Cost are actual dollars as reported on the Form 1.


Overall results

Overall Results


Overall results mwh

Overall Results$/MWh


Overall results1

Overall Results

  • For the study period, the $/MWh cost for Day 2 RTOs ranged from $0.393/MWh to $0.963/MWh

  • The Day 2 RTOs had a combined 5 year average cost of $0.658/MWh

  • The total cost is about 75% Administrative and about 25% Operational.


Overall results categories with the largest costs

Administrative

Depreciation Costs

Regulatory Costs

Consulting Fees/Outside Services

Administrative & General Salaries

Operational

Load Dispatching

Overall ResultsCategories with the Largest Costs


Overall results2

Overall Results

  • There is a significant variation in costs between the RTOs.

  • RTOs use different methods to account for and report costs.

  • FERC Order 668 established a new set of FERC accounting codes. RTOs will begin using these new codes for calendar year 2006.


Southwest power pool spp

Southwest Power Pool(SPP)

  • Day 1 RTO. Approved in October 2004.

  • Only one year of data available: 2005

  • Average cost was $0.240/MWh

  • 176 employees

  • Administrative & General Salaries, Regulatory Costs and Consulting Fees/Outside Services were the largest expenses.

  • SPP is implementing an Energy Imbalance Market. Expect that SPP’s operational cost will increase.


California iso caiso

California ISO(CAISO)

  • Day 2 RTO. Started 1997.

  • Data for 2001-2005

  • Average cost was $0.829/MWh

  • 489 employees

  • Rents, Depreciation expense, Administrative & General Salaries, and load dispatching were the biggest expenses.


Iso new england iso ne

ISO New England(ISO-NE)

  • Day 2 RTO. Approved 2005. Effectively operated as a Day 2 RTO since 2001.

  • Data for 2001-2005

  • Average cost was $0.721/MWh

  • 400 employees

  • Administrative & General Salaries, Depreciation expense and Consulting fees/Outside services were the largest expenses.


Midwest iso miso

Midwest ISO(MISO)

  • Day 2 RTO. Approved as Day 1 in December 2001. Approved as Day 2 in 2005.

  • Data for 2002-2005

  • Average cost was $0.296/MWh

  • 646 employees

  • Administrative & General Salaries, Consulting fees/Outside services, Regulatory debits, and Depreciation expense have been the largest expenses.


New york iso nyiso

New York ISO(NYISO)

  • Day 2 RTO. Started 1999.

  • Data for 2001-2005

  • Average cost was $0.740/MWh

  • 400 employees

  • Administrative & General Salaries, Consulting fees/Outside services and Depreciation expense have been the largest expenses.


Pjm interconnection pjm

PJM Interconnection(PJM)

  • Day 2 RTO. Approved 2001.

  • Data for 2001-2005

  • Average cost was $0.583/MWh

  • 500 employees

  • Administrative & General Salaries, Load dispatching and Depreciation expense have been the largest expenses.


Summary

Summary

  • Cost recovery is accomplished through various charges specified in the RTO tariff.

  • Total operational and administrative costs vary widely by RTO.

  • The Day 2 RTOs 5 year average cost was $0.658/MWh and the study period cost ranged from $0.393/MWh to $0.963/MWh.

  • Some RTO’s are seeing their $/MWh cost increase, while others are seeing it decrease. The overall $/MWh cost is stabilizing as the markets mature.


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