Electric circuits
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Electric Circuits. Series and Parallel Circuits. Circuit Diagrams. An electric circuit is a complete path through which charge can flow Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit Circuit diagrams show a source of electrical energy, and devices run by electrical energy.

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Electric Circuits

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Electric circuits

Electric Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits


Circuit diagrams

Circuit Diagrams

  • An electric circuit is a complete path through which charge can flow

  • Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit

  • Circuit diagrams show a source of electrical energy, and devices run by electrical energy


Circuit diagrams1

Circuit Diagrams

  • A circuit diagram will show one or more paths for the charge to flow

  • Switches are where the circuit can be open

  • An open circuit occurs if a switch is open then the circuit is not a complete loop and the current stops

  • A closed circuit is when the switch is closed and the circuit is complete


Series circuit

Series Circuit

  • A series circuit has only one path that the charge can flow

  • If one element in a series circuit stops working then the whole circuit will not work

  • Each bulb in a series circuit adds resistance and makes all of the bulbs dimmer


Parallel circuit

Parallel Circuit

  • A parallel circuit is when two or more paths through which the charge can flow

  • If one element stops working then the charge can flow along another path

  • This is common in houses


Power and energy

Power and Energy

  • The rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy is electric power

  • The unit is joule per second or watt (W)

  • Power is often in kilowatts (kW)

  • Power = current x voltage or P = I x V

  • P(watts) = I (amps) x V (volts)


Example

Example

  • An electric oven is connected to a 240 volt line and it uses 34 amps of current. What is the power used by the oven?

  • Current = I = 34 ampsVoltage = V = 240 voltsPower = I x V

  • Power = 34 amps x 240 voltsPower = 8160 watts


Electrical safety

Electrical Safety

  • There are several things needed to make a house safe such as correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers, insulation, and grounded plugs

  • In the US most houses have an average of 120 volts and each device increases the current

  • If too many devices are used it may cause a fire


Home safety

Home Safety

  • A fuse prevents current overload in a circuit

  • A wire in the fuse will melt if there is too much current

  • This is how we “blow a fuse”

  • Most houses now use circuit breakers

  • A circuit breaker is a switch that will open when a current is too high


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