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Wenstrom Bible Ministries Marion, Iowa Pastor-Teacher Bill Wenstrom www.wenstrom.org.
Thursday June 12, 2014Daniel: Daniel 11:31-The Prophecy of Antiochus Epiphanes IV Ordering the Desecration of the Temple, Abolishment of the Daily Sacrifice and Setting Up the Abomination of DesolationLesson # 348
Daniel 11:29 “At the appointed time, he will return in order to wage an attack against the south. However, it will by no means turn out like the first or the last 30 because ships of Kittim will come against him. Consequently, he will be intimidated so that he will retreat. Then, he will vent his anger against the holy covenant so that he will take action.
When he returns, he will also show partiality for those who abandon the holy covenant. 31 Even military forces will be mustered by him in order to cause the holy place, the place of Refuge to be defiled. Specifically, they will cause the daily sacrifice to be abolished. They will even erect an abomination resulting in desecration.” (My translation)
Daniel 11:29 “At the appointed time he will return and come into the South, but this last time it will not turn out the way it did before. 30 For ships of Kittim will come against him; therefore he will be disheartened and will return and become enraged at the holy covenant and take action; so he will come back and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant.
31 Forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of desolation.” (NASB95)
“Forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress” is an ascensive clause meaning that it not only is an addition to the previous statement but also presents something out of the ordinary or unexpected.
It expresses the shock that the despicable king ruling the north would muster military forces to cause the holy place, the place of refuge for God’s people to be defiled.
“From him” is composed of the preposition min (מִן) (min) “from” and its object is the third person masculine singular pronominal suffix hû(ʾ) (הוּא) (who), “him.”
The third person masculine singular pronominal suffix hû(ʾ) means “him” referring of course to the despicable king ruling the north and is the object of the preposition min, which means “by” since it is functioning as a marker of means indicating that military forces will be mustered “by” the king ruling the north.
In other words his orders will be the means by which these military forces will be assembled or mustered to wage war against the holy covenant.
“Will arise” is the verb ʿā∙mǎḏ (עָמַד) (aw-mad), which means “to raise, to muster, to be assembled” since it pertains to the act of assembling an army or causing an army to be gathered together for war.
“Desecrate the sanctuary fortress” presents the purpose for which the despicable king ruling the north will muster military forces indicating this king will muster forces “in order to” or “for the purpose of” desecrating the temple fortress.
The word is used from the perspective of the Mosaic Law and speaks of causing something set apart for the exclusive use and worship of the God of Israel to be defiled in the sense of making it ceremonially unclean and unfit for the worship of the God of Israel.
Here it refers to the despicable king ruling the north mustering forces in order to desecrate the temple in the sense that he will make it ceremonially unclean or unfit for the worship of the God of Israel.
“The sanctuary fortress” is composed of the noun miq·dāš (מִקְדָּשׁ) (mik-dawsh´), “sanctuary,” which is followed by the articular singular absolute noun mā·ʿôz (מָעוֹז) (maw-oze´), “fortress.”
The noun miq·dāš is derived from the verb qā·ḏǎš, which means “to be holy” referring to separation from common use and dedication to the use of the Lord.
Here in Daniel 11:31 as was the case in Daniel 8:11, the noun miq·dāš refers to the Jewish temple standing in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes IV.
The noun mā·ʿôz does not mean “fortress, stronghold” but rather “the place of refuge” or “the Refuge” since it describing the temple in Jerusalem as a place of refuge for the people who worship the God of Israel.
Most modern translations translate the word “fortress” since in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes IV there was a citadel or fortress at the temple in Jerusalem according to 1 Maccabees 6:7.
The articular construction of both words makes it highly unlikely that these two words should be translated “fortified sanctuary” (NET) or “sanctuary fortress” (NASB95) or “temple and fortress” (ESV) or “temple fortress” (TNIV) since it rules out either having an attributive relation to the other.
The NET Bible interprets noun mā·ʿôz as having an attributive relation to miq·dāš and the TNIV interprets miq·dāš as having an attributive relation to mā·ʿôz.
The articular construction makes this highly unlikely since the articular construction of both words emphasizes the distinctiveness of both words indicating that both words are describing the distinctiveness and uniqueness of the temple in Jerusalem from different perspectives.
The noun miq·dāš describes the temple as set apart exclusively for the worship of the God of Israel while on the other hand mā·ʿôz describes it as a refuge for the people who worship the God of Israel.
“And do away with the regular sacrifice” defines specifically the previous statement that military forces will be mustered by the despicable king ruling the north for the purpose of causing the holy place, the place of refuge to be defiled.
This epexegetical clause refers to these forces “abolishing” the daily sacrifice which was offered to the God of Israel every evening and morning in the temple.
“And they will set up the abomination of desolation” is not only an addition to the previous statement but also is out of the ordinary or unexpected and expresses the shock that the military forces of the king ruling the north would set up an abomination that causes desolation.
“The abomination of desolation” is composed of the noun šiq·qûṣ (שִׁקּוּץ) (shik-koots´), “abomination of” and then we have the verb šā·mēm (שָׁמֵם) (shaw-mame´), “desolation.”
The noun šiq·qûṣ is in the singular meaning “abomination” and refers to the forces of this despicable king erecting an abomination in the temple.
It refers to the results of his actions in setting up an abomination in the temple since these actions defiled the temple and made it ceremonially unclean.
The actions of the despicable king of the north recorded here in Daniel 11:31 have all been fulfilled in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes IV.
He sent his general Apollonius with 22,000 soldiers into Jerusalem which he claimed were on a peace mission but when they had entered Jerusalem, these military forces attacked the Jews on the Sabbath.
Antiochus also forbid any Jew from observing the Mosaic Law and abolished the observance of the sacrifices in the temple and the seven feasts of the Lord as well as circumcision.
On December 16, 167 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes IV ordered his soldiers to erect an altar to Zeus on the altar of burnt offering and to sacrifice a pig on this altar which is an unclean animal to the Jews.
The erecting of the altar of Zeus was an abomination in the sense that it was a heathen image of worship and its presence in the temple resulted in the desecration or defilement of the temple along with the sacrificing of the pig on the altar of burnt offering.
To top it all off, Antiochus ordered the Jews to celebrate his birthday by offering a pig to Zeus on the altar of burnt offering in the temple.