D a broadband photometry of open clusters
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D a & Broadband photometry of open clusters. Martin Netopil Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna - Austria AIPW 2006 - Dubrovnik. Why open clusters?. They are physically related groups of stars held together by gravitational attraction and were formed at roughly the same time .

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D a & Broadband photometry of open clusters

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D a broadband photometry of open clusters

Da & Broadband photometryof open clusters

Martin Netopil

Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna - Austria

AIPW 2006 - Dubrovnik


Why open clusters

Why open clusters?

  • They are physically related groups of stars held together by

  • gravitational attraction and were formed at roughly the same time.

  • Their evolutionary stages range from clouds where star formation is still

  • ongoing to very old aggregates (~10Gyr).

  • Open clusters offer therefore an unique and easy possibility to examine

  • the galactic structure as well as

  • distribution and evolution of several star groups

  • (e.g. Be, CP, WR stars, WD)

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 2/13


What is known missing

What is known/missing?

  • ~1700 clusters (or candidates) known in the Milky Way.

  • ~850 clusters with „known“ distance / age / reddening

  • ~300 clusters with „known“ distance / age / PM and RV

  • ~140 clusters with abundances

  • what is missing: 

  • therefore large efforts are necessary for a reliable image

  • next current and future milestones:

  • SDSS (SEGUE), COROT, GAIA, int. research group for open clusters

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 3/13


The current status of open cluster parameters

The current status of open cluster parameters

  • Paunzen & Netopil (2006)examined the accuracy of ~ 6400 individual parameter estimates of 395 open clusters using clusters with ≥3 determinations each, compiling a set of 72 most accurate clusters for testing isochrones etc.

  • ~90% cl.: error of E(B-V) < 0.1mag

  • ~80% cl.: absolute error in distance < 20%

  • ~10% cl.: absolute error in age < 20%;

  • >30% cl. exhibit error in age > 50% with

  • extreme values larger than 200%!

  •  severe problem: age determination

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 4/13


What are cp stars

What are CP stars?

  • discovery in 1897 by Antonia Maury

  • peculiar and often variable line strengths

  • overabundances for heavy elements such as Silicon, Chromium, Strontium and

  • Europium

  • According to Preston (1974) the CP stars were divided into the following groups:

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 5/13


What are cp stars1

What are CP stars?

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 6/13


The tool of d a photometry

The tool of Da photometry

Photometry offers an easy possibility for investigating large samples of CP stars, especially through the discovery of characteristic broadband absorption features, the most suitable of them located around 5200Å.

g1: 5027Å / 222Å

g2: 5205Å / 107Å

y: 5509Å / 120Å

The index (g1-y) shows an excellent correlation with (b – y) or (B – V)and can be used as an index for the effective temperature (Paunzen, Schnell, Maitzen 2005, 2006).

An y versus (g1-y) diagram (= cmd) for a cluster can then easily sorts out non-members. Assuming that all stars exhibit the same interstellar reddening, peculiar objects deviate from the normality line more than 3s.

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 7/13


The tool of d a photometry1

The tool of Da photometry

Netopil, Paunzen, Maitzen et al. (2006) submitted

advantages: Isochrones available (Claret et al. 2003, Claret 2004);

accurate photometry (~10 frames each => time consuming);

reduction „relative“ simple using available packages (apphot, daophot); no standard fields necessary

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 8/13


D a open cluster survey

Da open cluster survey

  • Photoelectric survey: 14 papers until now

  • (first: Maitzen, Hensberge 1981; for the time being last: Maitzen 1993)

  • ~1240 stars in 38 open clusters => 62 CP candidates

  • CCD survey: 8 papers (2000 – 2006) until now

  • ~11340 stars in 45 open clusters => ~ 90 CP candidates

  • data collection: 17 different telescopes (ESO, CTIO, CASLEO, Hvar etc.)

  • A statistical analysis of the sample is in preparation. However, 83 clusters

  • are still a small sample if one intend to examine their galactic distribution.

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 9/13


D a in extragalactic environments

Da in extragalactic environments

  • First CP2 discovery by Maitzen et al. (2001) in LMC via Da

  • Further investigations by Paunzen et al. (2005, 2006) confirm an occurrence of CP stars about half than in the Milky Way (2.2 / 5%).

  • already in preparation:

  • Spectroscopic verification of detected CP stars in the LMC

  • Da photometry of a 30‘ field (~100.000 stars) within the SMC

  • (ESO 2.2m – WFI)

  • image reduction problems:

  • extreme crowded fields together with instrumental resolution and seeing conditions makes it impossible to resolve the innermost cluster regions.

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 10/13


Broadband photometry

Broadband photometry

  • Since about ½ of the known open clusters are not or only marginally

  • investigated up to now, we have started a small survey (BVR photometry) to

  • fill some of the white spots on the galactic map.

  • Netopil, Paunzen, Maitzen et al. (2005): NGC 7296

  • Netopil, Maitzen, Paunzen et al. (2006): Basel 11b, King 14, Czernik 43

  • Netopil, Maitzen, Paunzen et al. (in prep.): Czernik 15, Czernik 23, NGC 743

  • mostly observed for the first time.

  • main aim: determining cluster properties using reasonable magnitude limits

  • based on more observations in each filter => accuracy.

  • used observatories:Figl Observatory for Astrophysics (Austria)

  • Hvar Observatory (Croatia)

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 11/13


Broadband photometry1

Broadband photometry

Netopil, Maitzen, Paunzen et al. (2006)

reduction „relative“ simple using available packages (apphot, daophot)

„problems“: standard transformation, atmospheric extinction

observing strategy: all observations at low airmass back-to-back

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 12/13


Webda http www univie ac at webda

WEBDA – http://www.univie.ac.at/webda

  • The database WEBDA (maintained by Ernst Paunzen) is a site devoted to

  • observational data on stars in galactic open clusters. It is intended to provide

  • a reliable image of the available data and knowledge on these objects and to

  • offer a wide access to the existing observations including:

  • 2.000.000 stars / 5.000.000 individual measurements of 1100 clusters

  • photometry (different systems), astrometric & spectroscopic data,

  • membership probabilities, references etc.

  • using a homogenized star numbering system for an easy identification and

  • comparison.

  • Also available are data of SMC clusters.

AIPW – Dubrovnik 2006 13/13


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