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Working paper No . EFV-01-06 (GRPE Informal Group on EFV, 1st meeting, 6 June 2008). Possible approach to a concept for an Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EFV) (Brainstorm). GRPE – 1 st informal meeting EFV WG (Geneva, 6 June 2008). Gerben Passier (TNO). Background.

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Possible approach to a concept for an environmentally friendly vehicle efv brainstorm

Working paper No. EFV-01-06

(GRPE Informal Group on EFV,

1st meeting, 6 June 2008)

Possible approach to a concept for an Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EFV)

(Brainstorm)

GRPE – 1st informal meeting EFV WG (Geneva, 6 June 2008)

Gerben Passier (TNO)

TNO Science & Industry


Background
Background

  • Many approaches, ideas, technologies to solve

    • Climate change

    • Energy efficiency

  • How can policy makers decide what to support?

  • Problem: how to compare objectively impact on environment?

  • TNO Science & Industry


    Objectives
    Objectives

    Review the feasibility of EFV concept: Globally harmonised method for evaluating environmentatlly friendliness of a vehicle

    • Propose scope and parameters for EFV concept

    • Proposal plan for literature study

      Focus on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions based on well-to-wheel approach

      Feasibility question: aim also to set a standard and certify (like EEV for HD)?

    TNO Science & Industry


    Scope and parameters effici nt clean smart

    Biofuels 2e gen.

    Gas

    Hydrogen

    5-10%

    Eco-Driving

    Travel information

    Environmental traffic management

    5~10%

    5~10%

    10-20%

    10~15%

    Advanced engines

    Transmission

    Hybride  electric

    Weight reduction

    Tyres

    Aerodynamics

    Air Conditioning

    10~20%

    Scope and parameters: Efficiënt, Clean, Smart

    • Focus on Efficient vehicle technology

    Alternative

    fuels

    Vehicle

    technology

    ICT in mobility

    / behaviour

    Powertrain

    Other

    TNO Science & Industry


    Scope and parameters
    Scope and parameters

    • Focus on passenger cars first?

    • Pollutant emissions not considered (but minimum standard Euro6 or stricter)?

    • Consider real world?

    • Technology neutral (!)

    TNO Science & Industry


    Relation energy efficiency and co 2
    Relation Energy efficiency and CO2

    CO2 emissions

    • Need to include both: EFV = EE + CO2

    low

    Hydrogen?

    Biofuels?

    Ideal?

    PHEV?

    Electric?

    ICE (G & D) ?

    high

    Energy

    Efficiency

    low

    high

    TNO Science & Industry


    For assessment of efv co 2 energy the whole chain is important well to wheel analysis
    For assessment of EFV (CO2 & energy), the whole chain is important (Well-to-wheel analysis)

    • Production fuel (WTT) and use in vehicle (TTW) now

    • Development, production & disposal of the vehicle in the future

      EFV = WTT + TTW

    TNO Science & Industry


    Combine co2 and energy efficiency 1
    Combine CO2 and Energy efficiency (1)

    • EFV = EE (WTT) + EE (TTW) + CO2 (WTT) + CO2 (TTW)

    • Powertrain efficiency

    • Fuel type

    • Fuel production

    Assume:

    Depend mainly on fuel type

    Little variation per fuel type

    ??

    Difficult to compare vehicles with different type of fuel (eg electric with gasoline)

    • Seperate :

      EE (TTW) car manufacturers & CO2 (WTT) fuel industry

    TNO Science & Industry


    Combine co 2 and energy efficiency 2
    Combine CO2 and Energy efficiency (2)

    • To weight importance of CO2 versus Energy efficiency:

    • Normalise! Standard based on:

      • Average

      • Minimum

      • Best in class

        CO2 [g/kWh] EE [%]

  • EFV = (WTT) + (TTW)

    standard CO2 [g/kWh] standard EE [%]

  • TNO Science & Industry


    Seperate fuel vehicle characteristics
    Seperate fuel & vehicle characteristics

    Fuel

    (carbon content)

    • Further investigation of definitions is needed

    • Importance of default values

    better

    H2?

    Elec.?

    E85

    E10

    E0

    Flexibility for choice of technology

    Vehicle

    (Energy efficiency)

    current

    worse

    EFV1

    EFV2 treshhold

    worse

    better

    TNO Science & Industry


    Literature study technology and regulations
    Literature study (technology and regulations)

    State of the art of EFV technology

    • Biofuels

    • Plug-in hybrids

    • Electric

    • Hydrogen

    • Successful (worldwide) concept & regulation

    • Euro norms

    • PC CO2

    • Frontrunner; EEV

    • Procurement

    • Fiscal measures

    TNO Science & Industry


    Thank you !

    12

    TNO Science & Industry


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