Photosynthesis chapter 10
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Photosynthesis Chapter 10. Photosynthesis. P rocess that converts solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis food for almost the entire living world. Photosynthesis.

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Photosynthesis Chapter 10

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Photosynthesis chapter 10

PhotosynthesisChapter 10


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • Process that converts solar energy into chemical energy

  • Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis food for almost the entire living world


Photosynthesis1

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions that can be summarized as the following equation:

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O


Photosynthesis chapter 10

  • Autotrophs= produce own food

  • Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules

  • Almost all plants are photoautotrophs

    • Uses the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules


Photosynthesis2

Photosynthesis

  • Initial Source of Energy for Most Systems

  • Primary Producers= source of organic molecules for most other organisms

    • Terrestrial Systems= Plants

    • Aquatic Systems= Phytoplankton

  • Consumers= heterotrophs= consume organic material from other organisms

    • Cellular Respiration

Primary Producers

Consumers

Decomposers


Photosynthesis3

Photosynthesis

  • Plants use ~50% of sugars produced for cellular respiration to fuel own cellular processes

  • Rest of sugar is used as building blocks for other organic molecules

  • Ultimately, consumed by heterotrophs and used for cellular respiration


Figure 10 2

Figure 10.2

(b)

Multicellularalga

(c)

Unicellularprotists

(e)

Purple sulfurbacteria

Primary Producers: plants, algae, protists, and some prokaryotes

(a) Plants

These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world.

(d) Cyanobacteria

40 m

10 m

1 m


Photosynthesis chapter 10

Consumers

  • Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere

    • Heterotrophs= obtain organic material from other organisms

  • Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and O2


Humans rely on primary producers for other types of fuel

Humans rely on primary producers for other types of fuel

  • The Earth’s supply of fossil fuels was formed from the remains of organisms that died hundreds of millions of years ago

    • In a sense, fossil fuels represent stores of solar energy from the distant past

  • Biofuels


Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

  • Energy-producing organelle in plants

    • Converts solar energy into chemical energy

  • Contains green pigment known as chlorophyll

    • Light absorbing pigment

    • Gives leaves the green color

  • All green parts of plant have chloroplasts

    • Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll, the interior tissue of the leaf

      • Cells can have 30-40 chloroplasts


Figure 10 4a

Figure 10.4a

Leaf cross section

Chloroplasts

Vein

Mesophyll

Stomata

CO2

O2

Chloroplast

Mesophyllcell

20 m


Figure 10 4b

Figure 10.4b

Chloroplast

Outermembrane

Thylakoid

Intermembranespace

Granum

Stroma

Thylakoidspace

Innermembrane

1 m


Photosynthesis4

Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions that can be summarized as the following equation:

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O

  • Chloroplasts split H2O into hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules and releasing oxygen as a by-product


Figure 10 5

Figure 10.5

Photosynthesis

Reactants:

6 CO2

12 H2O

6 H2O

Products:

C6H12O6

6 O2


Photosynthesis5

Photosynthesis

  • Endergonic reaction

    • Sunlight

  • Energy stored in bonds of glucose

  • Redox Reaction

    • Photosynthesis reverses the direction of electron flow compared to respiration

    • Oxidation= loss of electrons

      • Water is oxidized

    • Reduction= gain of electrons

      • Carbon dioxide is reduced


Figure 10 un01

Figure 10.UN01

Photosynthesis

becomes reduced

C6 H12 O6 6 O2

Energy  6 CO2  6 H2O

becomes oxidized


Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages

Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages

  • Light Reactions (“photo)

    • Occurs in thylakoids

    • Split H2O

    • Release O2

    • Reduce NADP+ to NADPH

    • Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation


Figure 10 6 1

Figure 10.6-1

H2O

Light

NADP

ADP

+P i

LightReactions

Chloroplast


Figure 10 6 2

Figure 10.6-2

H2O

Light

NADP

ADP

+P i

LightReactions

ATP

NADPH

Chloroplast

O2


Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages1

Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages

  • Dark Reactions: Calvin Cycle (“synthesis”)

    • Occurs in the stroma

      • Uses ATP and NADPH from light reaction to reduce CO2 and produce sugars

      • Begins with carbon fixation, incorporating CO2 into organic molecules


Figure 10 6 3

Figure 10.6-3

CO2

H2O

Light

NADP

ADP

+P i

CalvinCycle

LightReactions

ATP

NADPH

Chloroplast

O2


Figure 10 6 4

Figure 10.6-4

CO2

H2O

Light

NADP

ADP

+P i

CalvinCycle

LightReactions

ATP

NADPH

Chloroplast

[CH2O](sugar)

O2


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