Manipulating milk yield and composition
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MANIPULATING MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION. Leo Timms Iowa State University. POUNDS VS. PERCENTAGES. GENETICS. Milk composition/ yield highly heritable Heritability (h 2 ) milk yield .27 % fat .58 % protein .49 % lactose .55 Correlation between % fat and protein: ~.5

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MANIPULATING MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION

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Manipulating milk yield and composition

MANIPULATING MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION

Leo Timms

Iowa State University


Manipulating milk yield and composition

POUNDS

VS.

PERCENTAGES


Genetics

GENETICS

  • Milk composition/ yield highly heritable

  • Heritability (h2)

  • milk yield .27

  • % fat .58

  • % protein .49

  • % lactose .55

  • Correlation between % fat and protein: ~.5

  • Correlation between yield and % fat : ~ -.2

  • Correlation between yield and % protein: -.1

  • Correlation between yield and lbs. fat / prot. ++


Genetics1

GENETICS

  • Milk composition/ yield highly heritable

  • Species and/ or Breed differences

  • Fat / protein %

  • Milk fat globule size

  • Beta carotene

  • Fatty acid profiles

  • Casein genotypes


Physiological factors

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

  • Age

  • Stage of lactation

  • colostrum - rest of lactation

  • Dry period ( non-lactating)

  • Milking fraction (fat, SCC, IG?)

  • Milking interval

  • Reproduction: estrus/ follicular cyst/pregnancy

  • Temperature

  • Factors that affect/ compete for nutrients


Physiological factors1

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

  • METABOLIC DISEASES

  • Ketosis (glucose shortage – fat mobilized)

  • may increase or decrease yield

  • increased fat test ( lipolysis)

  • increased milk ketones

  • Milk Fever (Ca drain)

  • decreased production

  • MASTITIS ( Future talk)


Nutritional factors

NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

IF YOU DON’T FEED THEM, THEY WONT MILK! (DMI)


Water h2o

WATER!!!!!H2O


Nutritional factors1

NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • Underfeed energy (CHO)

    Volume, lactose, protein

  • Underfeed protein

    Volume, lactose protein

    Underfeeding energy: greatest effects!


Lactose volume

LACTOSE (VOLUME)

  • GLUCOSE demands!

  • Traditionally hard to change!

  • Propylene glycol/ glycerol drenches (bolus effect important!)

  • Rumensin

  • Chromium

  • Cobalt and Vitamin B12

  • Niacin and choline (rumen protected)


Milk proteins

MILK PROTEINS

  • Not as easy to change as one thinks!

  • Worth lots of $ so want to increase!

  • Dietary protein: minimal effects

  • Protected proteins/AA: minimal when protein is sufficient

  • Oilseeds: protein%

  • Hyperinsulinaemic/ euglycaemic clamp

  • Increased milk protein 25%

  • Same plasma AA: blood flow/AA extraction


Vitamins

VITAMINS

  • Vitamin A: fresh vs stored feeds

  • Increase feed Vit A/E: milk

  • May be more important for mastitis and somatic cells


Minerals

MINERALS

  • Very hard to change!!!

    IODINE!


Milk lipids

MILK LIPIDS

  • Easiest to change: diet labile

  • Change amount and types of FA

  • Saturated/protected oils: temp

  • Excessive grain / limited fiber

  • Rumen buffers: if low, will

  • Excess or free oilseeds:

  • Fiber digestion , CLA isomer

  • Feed CLA: CLA ; Fat


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