Knowledge and semantic technologies
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7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government: Building Trust in Government 26 – 29 June 2007 Vienna, Austria. Knowledge and semantic technologies. for agile and adaptive e-government. Prof. Gregoris Mentzas Director, Information Management Unit, http://www.imu.iccs.gr

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Knowledge and semantic technologies

7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government:

Building Trust in Government

26 – 29 June 2007

Vienna, Austria

Knowledge and semantic technologies

for agile and adaptive

e-government

Prof. Gregoris Mentzas

Director, Information Management Unit, http://www.imu.iccs.gr

Institute of Communication and Computer Systems

National Technical University of Athens


Overview of presentation 1

Overview of Presentation(1)

2

3

KM and

E-Government

Agile and Adaptive

E-Government

Semantic

Technologies

4

1

Conclusions


Data information and knowledge

Data, Information and Knowledge

Experience

Skills

Insights

  • Static

  • Independent of individual

  • Explicit

  • Digital

  • Easy to duplicate

  • Easy to broadcast

  • Meaningless

Context

Data

Information

Knowledge

  • Dynamic

  • Dependent on individual

  • Tacit

  • Analogue

  • Must be recreated

  • Face-to-face

  • Meaningful

Access AssessAction

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.073


Organisational knowledge is

Organisational Knowledge is ...

  • capability for effective action

FROM knowledge that is:

  • fragmented & dispersed

  • difficult to locate & share

  • redundant & inconsistent

TO knowledge that:

  • solves business problems

  • produces organisational value

  • enhances competitiveness

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.074


Where is organisational k nowledge found

Where is organisational knowledge found?

Organisational knowledge is created

by individuals and is embedded / embodied in:

People

Systems

Networks

Processes

  • Training

  • Documentation

  • Databases

  • Expert Systems

  • Formal

  • Informal

  • Policies

  • Procedures

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.075


What is km

Has been compared to OR!

The tools and the fusion are NEW!

Not just water-cooler discussions, but planned ICT, processes & behaviours

Teams and communities are indispensable!

Reuse corporate knowledge

Improve

employee skills

Marshall knowledge to respond to threats and opportunities

Create and share new ideas

What is KM?

Organisational Knowledge Management is

the newdiscipline of enabling

individuals, teams and entire organisations

to collectively and systematically

create, share and apply organisational knowledge

to better achieve organisational efficiency, responsiveness, competency and innovation

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.076


Importance of km in e government

Importance of KM in e-government

  • Wealth of knowledgein Public Administrations

    • knowledge on the environment, on social welfare, on politics and strategies, on judicial decisions, on practices, etc

  • Public Administrations as huge knowledge-intensive organisations

    • since they are collecting and processing data, information and knowledge about citizens, companies and other PAs

  • KM challengesfor public administrators

    • find successful ways for capturing, organising, sharing, distributing and exploiting the public administrations’ knowledge

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.077


Managing knowledge for e government

E-Citizens and Businesses

Adaptive e-Gov Services

People

Systems

Networks

Processes

Agile knowledge

infrastructure

Managing knowledge for e-government

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.078


Overview of presentation 2

Overview of Presentation(2)

2

3

KM and

E-Government

Agile and Adaptive

E-Government

Semantic

Technologies

4

1

Conclusions


The semantic web

The Semantic Web

  • „The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation.“

    • [Berners-Lee et al., 2001]

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0710


Central semantic web c oncepts

Central Semantic Web concepts

  • Meta-data describe structured and unstructured data & information

  • Meta-data are added to Web sites as annotations

  • Annotations refer to generelly accepted ontologies

  • Ontologies describe

    • the kinds of objects, as well as certain instances

    • the attributes of objects and

    • the relationships between objects as well as

    • the regularitities (axioms, integrity constraints, background knowledge)

    • in a defined part of the world

    • represented in a standardised, machine-understandable language (RDF, RDF(S), OWL)

    • after a group of actors has agreed on this conceptualization

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0711


Knowledge and semantic technologies

Instance-of

Instance-of

<swrc:Controller rdf:ID="person_chala"> <swrc:name>Christos Halaris</swrc:name>

...

</swrc:Controller>

<swrc:Manager rdf:ID="person_dapost">

<swrc:name>Dimitris Apostolou </swrc:name>

...

</swrc:Manager>

Anno- tation

<swrc:cooperatesWith rdf:resource = "http://www.imu.iccs.gr/index.php?

option=com_content&task=view&id=64

#person_dapost"/>

cooperatesWith

Web Page

URL

http://www.imu.iccs.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=63

http://www.imu.iccs.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=64

cooperatesWith

Ontology

rdf:hasDomain

rdf:hasRange

Person

rdf:subClass

rdf:subClass

Controller

Manager

Linked Objects:

  • Links have explicit meaning

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0712


Riding the semantic wave

Riding the Semantic Wave

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0713


Commercial interest is emerging

  • Commercial interest in Web 3.0 — or the “semantic web” — is only now emerging

    • Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense, John Markoff, November 12, 2006

  • The next big thing in data management takes skill, time, and experience. These tips should help you get the most out of the Semantic Web

    • The Future of the Web, Rachael King, April 2007

  • Major companies are joining the semantic wave

Slide from Mils Davis

Commercial interest is emerging…

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0714


Consultants confirm the trend

"Products with evolutionary vocabularies (ontologies) will win out.[...] Ontology-aware software agents will succeed -- others will age rapidly. ”

“By 2010, ontologies using strong knowledge representations will be the basis for 80 percent of application integration projects (0.8 probability).”

“The Semantic Web .... will allow much better search, information access and data interoperability ”

Consultants Confirm the Trend

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0715


But still many open issues

But… still many open issues

  • Economic aspects of semantic applications

  • Ontology and metadata creation methods, tools, ergonomics, and reuse

  • Ontology and metadata quality

  • Ontology evolution in practice

  • Tool functionality and quality

  • Reference ontologies and reference architectures

  • Relationship between semantic applications and legacy

  • Explanations and user acceptance of inferencing

  • ...

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0716


Overview of presentation 3

Overview of Presentation(3)

2

3

KM and

E-Government

Agile and Adaptive

E-Government

Semantic

Technologies

4

1

Conclusions


Semantic technologies for agile e government

E-Citizens and Businesses

Adaptive e-Gov Services

Agile knowledge

infrastructure

Semantic technologies for agile e-government

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0718


Going from the current situation

Going from the current situation…

  • “We live in an age of information overload, where attention has become the most valuable business currency.”

    • T. Davenport and J. Beck: “The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business”

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0719


To semantic agile e government

… to semantic agile e-government

  • Assist the KW in daily knowledge–based tasks

    • Support information sharing

    • Enhance collaboration

    • Transfer changes according to his preferences

Documents

Attention

Collaboration

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0720


From change to attention management

Information ontology

New discussions

New knowledge items relevant for the current task

New documents

New comments

New versions of documents

attention

changes

Change

propagation

Change

representation

Preference ontology

Change ontology

From change to attention management

  • Components of the AMS:

    • preference editor

      • preferences are defined wrt. the changes in the knowledge sources

    • aggregating & scoring module

      • that enables the combination of the preferences from several sources

    • query interface

      • that enables querying the repository

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0721


Semantic technologies for adaptive services

E-Citizens and Businesses

Adaptive e-Gov Services

Agile knowledge

infrastructure

Semantic technologies for adaptive services

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0722


E government service delivery problems

E-government service delivery problems

  • Lost-in-hyperspace problem

    • In the rich link structure of a portal, users can easily get overwhelmed and become unable to navigate effectively

  • One-size-fits-all problem

    • Websites provide (from the user’s point of view) relatively static content and are viewed by diverse users. This may:

      • cause difficulty for those who have less background

      • be redundant for those who already know the information

      • be uninteresting for others

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0723


Semantics for adaptive e government services

„customize workflow execution: If the user is from this group, then present more information“

data about users‘ behaviour

usage in on-line services

e.g.

„problems in filling-up a form“

information enriched with eGovernement context

knowledge about users‘ preferences

„there is a group of users (low language skills) which need more information about the issuing licences“

“problems in filling-up a form in the process of issuing a driving license for foreigners, by some users”

Semantics for adaptive e-government services

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0724


Overview of presentation 4

Overview of Presentation(4)

2

3

KM and

E-Government

Agile and Adaptive

E-Government

Semantic

Technologies

4

1

Conclusions


Pilot applications of research prototypes

Pilot applications of research prototypes

Agile knowledge-based e-government:

Poland

Urzad Miasta Czestochowa – the City Hall of Czestochowa

Slovakia

City ward Kosice

Hungary

Ministry of Informatics and Communication

Adaptive e-government services:

Greece

Ministry of Interior, General Secretariat of Public Administration

Austria

City of Voecklabruck

Serbia

Ministry of Science And Environmental Protection

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0726


Events on km and semantics in egovernment

Events on KM and Semantics in eGovernment

  • 1st International Symposium on the Semantic Web and eGovernment, 2006 AAAI Spring Symposium Series, Stanford University, USA, March 27-29, 2006

    • http://www.imu.iccs.gr/sweg/

  • Workshop on Semantic Web for eGovernment, within the 2006 European Semantic Web Conference, Budva, Montenegro, 11-14 June, 2006

    • http://www.imu.iccs.gr/semgov/

  • Workshop on Future eGovernment Research, Helsinki, IST 2006 Conference, 22 November 2006

    • http://www.imu.iccs.gr/events/future-egov/

  • Workshop on Knowledge and Semantic Technologies for e-Participation, Athens, Greece, 5 December, 2006

    • http://www.imu.iccs.gr/events/kmworkshop/

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0727


Applicability of semantics to e government

Applicability of Semantics to e-Government

  • Many parts of the e-gov domain are relatively formal

    • by their very nature

  • There are many (inevitable) aspects of heterogeneity

    • But also: enormous potentials by information integration

  • Many parts of the „business“ have to be compliant to regulations and laws

  • Additional aspect: privacy!

  • Many aspects are pure „knowledge work“

Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0728


Key issues to be considered

Key issues to be considered

  • Knowledge Management should be holistic

    • It fuses:

      • people and culture issues

      • intra- or inter-organisational business processes

      • IT tools

  • Knowledge Management is a means to an end

    • not an end in itself

      • The end is performing work better, faster and smarter

  • Knowledge cannotbe managed

    • only its environment can be managed!

  • Prof. G. Mentzas7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 26–29.06.0729


    Thank you

    Thank you!

    Prof. Gregoris Mentzas

    Information Management Unit (IMU)

    Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS)

    National Technical University of Athens(NTUA)

    http://www.imu.iccs.gr

    with contributions from Andreas Abecker, Nenad Stojanovic and Ljiljana Stojanovic (FZI, Germany), Dimitris Apostolou and Spyros Dioudis (ICCS, NTUA)


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