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Organic Chemistry. EL 11. Carbon bonding. Carbon is unique because it can form 4 equal bonds. This property allows it to form multiple types of bonds. Can also form long chains of atoms. Hydrocarbons. Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

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carbon bonding
Carbon bonding
  • Carbon is unique because it can form 4 equal bonds.
    • This property allows it to form multiple types of bonds.
  • Can also form long chains of atoms.
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
  • Alkanes – hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds – also called saturated hydrocarbons.
  • Alkenes – hydrocarbons that contain a double bond.
  • Alkynes – hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond.
naming system for hydrocarbons
Naming system for hydrocarbons
  • Hydrocarbons are named based on the number of carbons they have and the types of bonds they contain.
  • Here are the prefixes.
  • If the compound contains:
    • 1 carbon = meth-
    • 2 carbons = eth-
    • 3 carbons = prop-
    • 4 carbons = but-
    • 5 carbons = pent-
    • 6 carbons = hex-
    • 7 carbons = hept-
    • 8 carbons = oct-
    • 9 carbons = non-
    • 10 carbons = dec-
slide5

The suffix depends on the types of bonds that are between the carbon atoms.

  • If there are
    • Single bonds = -ane
    • Double bonds = -ene
    • Triple bonds = -yne
  • Examples
    • Methane ( a hydrocarbon with 1 carbon and single bonds)
slide6

Ethane (2 carbons and only single bonds)

  • Propane (3 carbons and only single bonds)
  • Propene (3 carbons and a double bond)
slide7

Butane (4 carbons and only single bonds)

  • Butyne (4 carbons and a triple bond)
  • Pentene
naming hydrocarbons
Naming hydrocarbons
  • What is the name of the following hydrocarbon?

H HHHHH

H – C – C – C = C – C – C – H

H HHH

isomers
Isomers
  • 2 structures that have the same number of carbons, but a different structure that gives them different properties.
  • See isomer lab for types of isomers, structures and naming.
functional groups
Functional groups
  • Elements other than H that are attached to the carbon chain that give the molecule different properties.
  • Methyl = CH3 ( we have already seen these as part of a carbon chain)
  • Alcohol – OH
    • Ethanol
polymers
Polymers
  • Large chain molecules made from a smaller molecules called monomers.
  • Monomers join together in repeating patterns.
  • Examples
    • DNA – made from nucleotides that join together in a pattern to make a large molecule.
      • Contains the genetic code.
    • Protein – made from amino acids that are joined together in patterns to make various proteins.
      • Acts as enzymes and support many body functions.
    • Carbohydrates – made from simple sugars called monosaccharides, like glucose or fructose.
      • Source of food energy and help provide plant structure.
    • Lipids – 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.
      • Soaps, waxes, oil, steroids, fat storage.
identifying monomers
Identifying monomers
  • What is the monomer for the following polymers?

1. H HHHHHHHHH

I IIIIIIIII

- C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C

I IIIIIIIII

H COOH H COONa H COOH H COONa H COOH

2. H HHHHHHHHH

I IIIIIIIII

- C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C

I IIIIIIIII

H COOH H COOH H COOH H COOH H COOH

cis and trans molecules
“Cis” and “trans” molecules
  • A naming system for isomers of alkanes and alkynes.
  • We use “trans” when the branched groups are on opposite sides of the double or triple bond and “cis” when they are on the same side.

trans-2-butene cis-2-butene

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