Organic chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. EL 11. Carbon bonding. Carbon is unique because it can form 4 equal bonds. This property allows it to form multiple types of bonds. Can also form long chains of atoms. Hydrocarbons. Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry

EL 11


Carbon bonding

  • Carbon is unique because it can form 4 equal bonds.

    • This property allows it to form multiple types of bonds.

  • Can also form long chains of atoms.


Hydrocarbons

  • Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

  • Alkanes – hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds – also called saturated hydrocarbons.

  • Alkenes – hydrocarbons that contain a double bond.

  • Alkynes – hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond.


Naming system for hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons are named based on the number of carbons they have and the types of bonds they contain.

  • Here are the prefixes.

  • If the compound contains:

    • 1 carbon = meth-

    • 2 carbons = eth-

    • 3 carbons = prop-

    • 4 carbons = but-

    • 5 carbons = pent-

    • 6 carbons = hex-

    • 7 carbons = hept-

    • 8 carbons = oct-

    • 9 carbons = non-

    • 10 carbons = dec-


  • The suffix depends on the types of bonds that are between the carbon atoms.

  • If there are

    • Single bonds = -ane

    • Double bonds = -ene

    • Triple bonds = -yne

  • Examples

    • Methane ( a hydrocarbon with 1 carbon and single bonds)


  • Ethane (2 carbons and only single bonds)

  • Propane (3 carbons and only single bonds)

  • Propene (3 carbons and a double bond)


  • Butane (4 carbons and only single bonds)

  • Butyne (4 carbons and a triple bond)

  • Pentene


Naming hydrocarbons

  • What is the name of the following hydrocarbon?

    H HHHHH

    H – C – C – C = C – C – C – H

    H HHH


Isomers

  • 2 structures that have the same number of carbons, but a different structure that gives them different properties.

  • See isomer lab for types of isomers, structures and naming.


Functional groups

  • Elements other than H that are attached to the carbon chain that give the molecule different properties.

  • Methyl = CH3 ( we have already seen these as part of a carbon chain)

  • Alcohol – OH

    • Ethanol


Polymers

  • Large chain molecules made from a smaller molecules called monomers.

  • Monomers join together in repeating patterns.

  • Examples

    • DNA – made from nucleotides that join together in a pattern to make a large molecule.

      • Contains the genetic code.

    • Protein – made from amino acids that are joined together in patterns to make various proteins.

      • Acts as enzymes and support many body functions.

    • Carbohydrates – made from simple sugars called monosaccharides, like glucose or fructose.

      • Source of food energy and help provide plant structure.

    • Lipids – 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.

      • Soaps, waxes, oil, steroids, fat storage.


Identifying monomers

  • What is the monomer for the following polymers?

    1. H HHHHHHHHH

    I IIIIIIIII

    - C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C

    I IIIIIIIII

    H COOH H COONa H COOH H COONa H COOH

    2. H HHHHHHHHH

    I IIIIIIIII

    - C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C – C

    I IIIIIIIII

    H COOH H COOH H COOH H COOH H COOH


“Cis” and “trans” molecules

  • A naming system for isomers of alkanes and alkynes.

  • We use “trans” when the branched groups are on opposite sides of the double or triple bond and “cis” when they are on the same side.

    trans-2-butene cis-2-butene


Cis and trans fatty acids


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