translation3 3
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Translation3_3 三大从句的翻译与特殊句型

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 55

Translation3_3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 70 Views
  • Uploaded on

Translation3_3 三大从句的翻译与特殊句型. By Yolanda. 三大从句的翻译方法. 名词性从句, 形容词性从句 状语从句. 名词性从句. what, how, whether, that, where, when, 引导的名词性从句 , 用来做主语,宾语,表语,介词宾语或者同位语. 名词性从句. What 引导 eg: 【what was once regarded as impossible】 has now become a reality. . 过去认为不可能的事 现在已经成为现实。.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Translation3_3 ' - vitalis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2
三大从句的翻译方法
  • 名词性从句,
  • 形容词性从句
  • 状语从句
slide3
名词性从句
  • what, how, whether, that, where, when, 引导的名词性从句,用来做主语,宾语,表语,介词宾语或者同位语
slide4

名词性从句

  • What引导

eg: 【what was once regarded as impossible】 has now become a reality.

过去认为不可能的事现在已经成为现实。

eg: 【 what someone chooses to observe 】and the way one observes it must, after all, in part be a reflection of experience and of ideas as to 【 what is significant 】.

slide5

名词性从句

eg: 某人选择观察的事物和他观察的方式在某种程度上一定反映这个人的经历和他关于重大的事件的看法

总结:what引导名词性从句,翻译成名词,“…的事(情)”,在句子中做主语,宾语,表语,介词宾语或者同位语

slide6

名词性从句

  • how引导

eg:I don’t know 【 how to do 】.

我不知道该如何做。

That was 【 how they were defeated 】.

他们就是这样给打败的

总结: how引导名词性从句,翻译为“ 如何…,这样…,那样….”

slide7

名词性从句

  • whether引导

eg:it isn’t much 【 whether he works】; the question is 【 whether he works at all 】.

他干多少并不重要,问题是他到底有没有干。

I wonder 【 whether he will come in such a bad day】.

我不知道在这样的天气里他是不是能来

总结: whether引导名词性从句,翻译为双重否定“是不是,能不能….”

slide8

名词性从句

  • when引导

eg: 【 when we will begin to work】 has not been decided yet.

什么时候开始工作还没决定呢。

  • where 引导
  • Eg: that’s 【where we differ】.

这就是我们的分歧所在。

总结: when引导, where 引导名词性从句,直接翻译“…时候”“…地方”。

slide9

名词性从句

  • that引导

eg: 【 that you have done such a stupid thing】 was incredible.

你竟然做这么傻的事情,(这)真叫人难以置信。

总结:that 引导的名词性从句常常表示强烈愿望或惊讶,愤怒等。

如果that从句过长,常常在后半句加上“这”。

slide10
形容词性从句
  • Which,why, that, who,where, when,as引导, 常作定语,但是还表示原因,转折等含意,翻译要变通处理。
slide11
形容词性从句
  • 前置定语
  • This is the reason 【why I am not in favor of revising the plan】.
  • 这就是我不赞成修改计划的原因

翻译为“…的”+前面的名词

slide12
形容词性从句

2.翻译为独立的并列分句

  • They are short of sticks to make frames for the climbing vines, without which the yield of grape would be halved.
  • 他们缺少搭架的杆子,没有杆子, 葡萄产量就会减半。

翻译时,将从句从句子中抽出来单独组成分句,放在主句后面,分句的中心词应该为修饰的名词。

slide13
形容词性从句

2.翻译为独立的并列分句

  • You compare her with your English women 【who wolf down three to five meat meals a day; naturally, you find her a sylph(身材苗条的女人) 】.
  • 你们英国女人每天狼吞虎咽的吃三到五餐肉食,你拿她和她们比,当然觉得她是个苗条仙女了。

放在主句前面,为了强调

slide14
形容词性从句

3.翻译为状语从句

  • The thief who was about to escape was caught by the police.
  • 小偷要跑时,被警察抓住了。
  • We support the open trade system which is to the ultimate advantage of all.
  • 我们支持开放的贸易制度,(因为)它最终对大家都有好处。
slide15
形容词性从句

3.翻译时,将从句和修饰的名词都分离出来单独成句子

  • There was 【a man who seems to have the answers】, and that was Mr. Robert.
  • 有一个人似乎胸有成竹,那就是罗伯特先生。
slide16
形容词性从句

4.翻译为谓语结构或者宾语结构

  • Often and often in after life I have come across people doing jobs【 that I had never dreamed of before】.
  • 在以后的日子里,我一再遇到有人从事的职业(这些职业)是我以前连做梦都没有想到的。
  • She knew the spots where hens laid their eggs.
  • 她知道(母鸡在那里下蛋)母鸡下蛋的地方。
slide17
形容词性从句

限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句

  • The thief who was about to escape was caught by the police.
  • The thief,who was about to escape,was caught by the police.
  • They are short of sticks to make frames for the climbing vines, without which the yield of grape would be halved.

常翻译为独立的分句,或独立从句

slide18
名词性从句与形容词性定语从句

从成分来看:

  • 名词性从句,做主语,宾语,表语,介词宾语或者同位语;
  • 形容词性定语从句,在句子中作定语;

从结构来看:

  • 名词性从句,前面没有要修饰的名词;
  • 形容词性定语从句,前面有要修饰的名词。
that that
That名词性从句与that引导的形容词性定语从句

eg:

that you have done such a stupid thing was incredible.

eg:

I saw the cat 【that caught the rat】【that ate the grain】 【 that in the house】 【that jack built】.

slide20
状语从句
  • 时间状语从句
  • 地点状语从句
  • 原因状语从句
  • 目的状语从句
  • 结果状语从句
  • 条件状语从句
  • 让步状语从句
  • 比较状语从句
  • 方式状语从句
slide21
状语从句
  • 对于状语从句的翻译,一般情况下按正常语序翻译。有时候可以把壮语从句放在主句后面。
  • 在翻译中需要注意:连词能省略就省略。

He must be ill, for he is absent

他肯定是病了,因为他没来。

他没来,肯定是病了。

slide22
状语从句
  • When we were about to get away, a police car came to the front door.

1)当我们正要离开的时候,一辆警车来到了前门。

2)我们正要离开,一辆警车来到了前门。

翻译壮语从句时,省略连词可以使译文更简洁通俗。

slide23
状语从句
  • 特殊状语从句
  • That引导
  • Before引导
  • Though引导
  • Because引导
  • Until 引导
slide24
状语从句
  • That引导

1)“the+形容词或副词比较级+that从句” 表示原因。

the act was the bolder that he stood utterly alone.

(因为)这完全是他一个人干的,所以这一行为更可称为大胆。

slide25
状语从句
  • That引导

2)“in that….” 表示原因。

I could understand his point of view, in that I’d been in a similar position.

我能理解他的观点,因为我也有过类似的处境。In that = because

slide26
状语从句
  • That引导

3)“not that…but (that)” 表示原因,翻译为“不是因为…而是因为…”。

it is not that I am unwilling to go with you, but that I’m busy now.

不是因为我不愿意跟你一起去,而是因为我现在很忙。

slide27
状语从句
  • That引导

4)“the rather that从句)” 表示原因,翻译为“因为……”。

I ‘m glad of it, the rather that you will benefit by it.

我感到高兴,因为它对你有益。

slide28
状语从句
  • That引导

5)“for all that从句)” 引导让步状语从句, 翻译为“尽管…””虽然…“。

For all that he seems so bad-tempered, I still think he has a very kind nature.

尽管她好像脾气很坏我仍然认为他心地善良。

slide29
状语从句
  • That引导

6)“but that从句” 引导让步状语从句, 翻译为“要不是…的话“”如果不是…的话”。

but that he helps, I should fail.

要不是他帮忙的话,我就失败了。

slide30
状语从句
  • That引导

7)“so much so that从句” 相当于“to that extent so that”, 翻译为“甚至“”以至于…”,“因此”等等。

he is very ignorant so much so that he cannot read his own name.

他非常无知,甚至连自己的名字都不认识。

slide31
状语从句

2.Before引导

Before引导状语从句表示“在…之前”但由于汉英表达方式不同,翻译成汉语时,表达有多种。

Be a pupil before you become a teacher.

做先生之前,先做学生.

先做学生,再做先生.

slide32
状语从句

2.Before引导

Before I could say a single word, he ran away.

在我能说一句话之前,他跑掉了。

我连一句话也没来得及说他就跑了.

slide33
状语从句

3.Though引导

Though引导的从句可放在主句前,也可放在主句后面。

翻译不同:在前翻译为“虽然…“、”尽管...”;

在后翻译为“可是”,“不过”,“然而”

slide34
状语从句

Thought the task was difficult, they managed to accomplish it in time.

虽然任务艰巨,他们还是设法及时完成了。

He was old and poor, though he was happy

他又老又穷,但过得却快活。

slide35
状语从句

4. Because引导

Because引导的从句, 主句是肯定的,主句是否定的,翻译不同,要根据上下文的内涵逻辑而定。

slide36
状语从句

4. Because引导

I didn’t go because I was afraid。

我不是因为害怕才去的。

He cannot go to school because he is sick.

他因为生病不能上学。

slide37
状语从句
  • Until 引导
  • 主句是肯定句时,翻译为“直到...为止”
  • 主句是否定句,翻译为“直到...才”
slide38
状语从句
  • I didn‘t go back until 10 o’clock。
  • 我直到10点才回去。
  • I waited for you until 10 o‘clock。
  • I waited for you until 10 o‘clock。

我等你等到十点为止。

slide39
特殊句型的翻译方法
  • 强调句型
  • It is not whorules us that is important, but how he rules us.
  • 重要的不是谁统治我们,而是看他怎样统治.
  • It is the teacher who helps the students study.
slide40
特殊句型的翻译方法
  • “too…to…”翻译为“太…而不能…”
  • She is too angry to speak.
  • 她愤怒得说不出话来.
  • Not too…to do“并不太…所以能做…”.
  • He is not too old to do it.
  • 他还没有老到做不了这件事的程度.
slide41
特殊句型的翻译方法
  • “only(not, all, but, never)too…to…” “too really 形容词 to do “
  • 此时结构中too…to…,没有否定含义。
  • They are all too satisfied to take the opinions of others without the pain of thought for themselves。
  • 他们都非常满意接受别人的而已件,而自己懒得去思考问题.
slide42
英语习语的翻译
  • P26 例1
  • P287
  • Like father like son 有其父必有其子
  • Wall have ears 隔墙有耳
  • Strike while the iron is hot趁热打铁
  • Six of one and half a dozen of
  • the other 半斤八两
slide43
英语习语的翻译
  • 习语的翻译并非处处对等

eg: dog-eat-dog可以翻译为“狗咬狗”,但并非所有时候都这样翻译。

  • 在习语的翻译中,应该提防“假朋友”

eg: “to pull one’s leg” 意思是“愚弄取笑某人” 不是“拖后腿”

“to hold sb back”意思是“拖后腿”

  • 翻译习语时,保留原文民族色彩,不要滥用汉语的习语。
slide44
汉译英基本句型
  • 如何翻译出地道的英语
  • 要符合英语语法结构(9)P324
  • 要符合英语的习惯表达

eg: 我的心永远和你在一起。

My heart will always be together with you.

I will always be together with you in spirit.

slide45
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英步骤:
  • 确定英语单句的主干

古今中外,这种情况概莫能外。

窗外有棵树。

There is no exception to this in modern or ancient time, in China or elsewhere .

There is a tree outside of the window.

slide46
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英步骤:
  • 确定英语单句的主干

谓语的确立,汉语的谓语可以是多种词汇,但英语中只有系动词或实意动词能作谓语

1)汉语的谓语如果是名词,数词,形容词,介词短语,翻译成英语时在这些词前加上系动词(be, seem, look, taste, feel等).

slide47
汉译英基本句型
  • eg: 天蓝,水美。

The sky is blue and the

water is beautiful.

eg: 这小伙子很帅。

The young gay looks so

handsome.

2)汉语中的连动式谓语只能保留一个主要动词(并列动词除外)其他动词译为名词、介词短语或者不定式.

slide48
汉译英基本句型
  • eg: 明天总统准备乘坐专机前往上海参观访问.

eg: The president prepares to go to Shanghai by his special plane for a visit tomorrow.

[分析]:“准备”作为主要谓语动词,“乘坐专机”译成了介词短语,“前往”译为动词不定式作主要谓语动词“prepare”的宾语,“参观访问”译为“介词短语”。

slide49
汉译英基本句型

2. 确定时态和语态

[注意1]:在汉语中被动语态相对较少,而英语中喜欢用被动语态,所以在确定主语时应该与语态的确立结合起来。

[注意2]:汉语中有些主动式最好翻译成英语中程式化的被动结构,例如:“众所周知”“大家一致认为”“人们普遍认为”,“有人建议”“有消息说”“据报道”等等。常常翻译为“it is (was) +动词的过去分词+that从句”这样的结构。

slide50
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英基本句型
  • 简单句

参见前面所讲的汉译英翻译步骤

2. 无主句

大多数情况下,汉语无主句,在翻译成英语时补加主语,祈使句除外。

Eg:请把书打开。

Please open your books.

slide51
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英基本句型
  • 简单句

参见前面所讲的汉译英翻译步骤

2. 无主句

大多数情况下,汉语无主句,在翻译成英语时补加主语,祈使句除外。

Eg:请把书打开。

Please open your books.

slide52
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英基本句型

3.主题句

注意英汉主题句的位置,有时翻译时,要进行语序调整。

4.连动句

参见谓语动词的确定。

5.兼语句(双宾语)

分为三种类型:P427

slide53
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英9种基本句型

3.主题句

注意英汉主题句的位置,有时翻译时,要进行语序调整。

4.连动句

参见谓语动词的确定。

5.兼语句(双宾语)

分为三种类型:P427

slide54
汉译英基本句型
  • 汉译英9种基本句型

6. 主从复合句

Eg: 房间里有很多人,最小的一个12岁。

There is many people in the room, the youngest being 12 years old.

slide55

Gold will help those

who help themselves

天助自助者

ad