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CHAPTER 22 Nuclear Chemistry. II. Radioactive Decay (p. 705 - 712). I. II. III. IV. A. Types of Radiation. Alpha particle ( ) helium nucleus. paper. 2+. Beta particle ( -) electron. 1-. lead. Positron ( +) positron. 1+. concrete. Gamma ( ) high-energy photon. 0.

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chapter 22 nuclear chemistry

CHAPTER22 Nuclear Chemistry

II. Radioactive Decay

(p. 705 - 712)

I

II

III

IV

a types of radiation
A. Types of Radiation
  • Alpha particle ()
    • helium nucleus

paper

2+

  • Beta particle (-)
    • electron

1-

lead

  • Positron (+)
    • positron

1+

concrete

  • Gamma ()
    • high-energy photon

0

b nuclear decay

parent

nuclide

alpha

particle

daughter

nuclide

B. Nuclear Decay
  • Alpha Emission

Numbers must balance!!

b nuclear decay1

electron

positron

B. Nuclear Decay
  • Beta Emission
  • Positron Emission
b nuclear decay2

electron

B. Nuclear Decay
  • Electron Capture
  • Gamma Emission
    • Usually follows other types of decay.
  • Transmutation
    • One element becomes another.
b nuclear decay3
B. Nuclear Decay
  • Why nuclides decay…
    • need stable ratio of neutrons to protons

DECAY SERIES TRANSPARENCY

c half life
C. Half-life
  • Half-life (t½)
    • Time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay.
    • Shorter half-life = less stable.
c half life1
C. Half-life

mf:final mass

mi:initial mass

n:# of half-lives

c half life2
C. Half-life
  • Fluorine-21 has a half-life of 5.0 seconds. If you start with 25 g of fluorine-21, how many grams would remain after 60.0 s?

GIVEN:

t½ = 5.0 s

mi = 25 g

mf = ?

total time = 60.0 s

n = 60.0s ÷ 5.0s =12

WORK:

mf = mi (½)n

mf = (25 g)(0.5)12

mf = 0.0061 g

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