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POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY AND GLOBALIZATION. DR. PETROS KOSMAS LECTURER VARNA FREE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011 LECTURE 3. ECO-3004. International Integration. Ultimate expression of integration Sovereignty

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Post industrial society and globalization





ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011



International integration
International Integration

Ultimate expression of integration


The primary problem of international organization is the achievement of a stable peace among nation-states. 


European integration

European integration is the process of political, legal, economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.

In the present day, European integration has primarily come about through the EU and the Council of Europe.

European Integration


History of european integration

Pan-Europa Manifesto (1923) the first to conceive of a union of European nations was Richard Nikolaus. 

League of Nations (1929)  Aristide Briand, who gave a speech in favor of a European Union and in 1930 who wrote his "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France.

At the end of WWII, the continental political climate favoured unity in Western Europe, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent.

"The United States of Europe" 

History ofEuropean Integration


Council of europe
Council of Europe

The idea of European integration led to the creation of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in 1949.

The most important achievement of the Council of Europe

is the European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 with its European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which serves as a de facto supreme court for human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout Europe.

In accordance with its Statute of 1949, the Council of Europe works to achieve greater unity among its members based on common values, such as human rights and democracy.


Organization for security and co operation in europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) in July 1973  is a trans-Atlantic intergovernmental organization whose aim is to secure stability in Europe.

The OSCE develops 3 lines of activities, namely the:

(i)Politico-Military Dimension, mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution

(ii) Economic and Environmental Dimension, the monitoring, alerting and assistance in case of economic and environmental threats;

(iii)Human Dimension, full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.


Regional integration
Regional Integration

Baltic region

Low Countries region

British Isles

Central Europe

Nordic region

European Free Trade Association


European communities
European Communities

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in the Treaty of Paris, which came into force on 23 July 1952. a few Western European states agreed to confer powers over their steel and coal production to the (ECSC)

European Atomic Energy Community (or Euroatom)  This transfer of national powers to a "Community" to be exercised by its Commission was paralled under the 1957 Treaty of Rome.

European Economic Community (EEC)  in 1967, the Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) combine the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC


Single european act
Single European Act

In 1987, the Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome that formally established the single European market and the European Political Cooperation.

The Communities still had independent personalities although were increasingly integrated, and over the years were transformed into what is now called the EU.


European union
European Union

The European Union (EU) is an association of 27 sovereign member states , that by treaty have delegated certain of their competences to common institutions, in order to coordinate their policies in a number of areas, without however constituting a new state on top of the member states.

Officially established by the Treaty of Maastricht  in 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing EEC.


European union1
European Union

The institutions of the EU, its parliamentarians, judges, commissioners and secretariat, the governments of its member states as well as their people, all play a role in European Integration.

Nevertheless, the question of who plays the key role is disputed as there are different theories on European Integration focusing on different actors and agency.


Economic integration
Economic Integration

Free Trade Area (FTA)

Customs Union

Single Market



Social and political integration
Social and Political Integration

Education (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students)


Charter of Fundamental Rights

Right to vote

Visa policy in EU

Schengen zone




European commission
European Commission

Staff of 24,000

HQ in Brussels, Belgium

Commission has 27 individual members – one from each member state

Chosen for 4-year renewable terms

Lacks formal autonomous power except for day-to-day EU operations

Reports to, and implements policies of, the Council of Ministers


Council of ministers
Council of Ministers

Meeting of the relevant ministers of each member state – politicians who control the bureaucrats

Reflects states’ resistance to yielding sovereignty

Voting system is based on each state’s population, but in practice it operates by consensus on major policy issues.

Has a rotating presidency (with limited power)

European Council (1970s)


European parliament
European Parliament

Falls somewhat short of a true legislature passing laws for all of Europe

At present, it operates partly as a watchdog over the Commission, but with some power to legislate.

Must approve the Commission’s budget but no item by item control.

Shares power with the Council under a “co-decision procedure.”

Economic and Social Committee

European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)


Future of european integration
Future of European Integration

There is no fixed end result of the process of integration. Integration and enlargement pf the EU are major issues in the politics of Europe, both at European, national and local level.

Integration may conflict with national sovereignty and cultural identity by eurosceptics.


Euroscepticism or euroskepticism
Euroscepticism or Euroskepticism

Euroscepticism or Euroskepticism is a general term used to describe criticism of the EU, and opposition to the process of European Integration, existing throughout the political spectrum.

the main source of euroscepticism has been the notion that integration weakens the nation state.

eurosceptic include perceptions of the EU being undemocratic or too bureaucratic.


Types of euroscepticism
Types of euroscepticism

There are two different strains of Eurosceptic thought:

Hard euroscepticism is the opposition to membership of, or the existence of, the European Union in its current form as a matter of principle.

Soft euroscepticism is support for the existence of, and membership of, a form of European Union, but opposition to particular EU policies, and opposition to a federal Europe.

Harmsen, Robert; Spiering, Menno (2005). Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration. Rodopi. ISBN9789042019461.

Szczerbiak, Aleks; Taggart, Paul A. (2008). Opposing Europe?. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN9780199258307.