POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY AND GLOBALIZATION. DR. PETROS KOSMAS LECTURER VARNA FREE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011 LECTURE 3. ECO-3004. International Integration. Ultimate expression of integration Sovereignty
DR. PETROS KOSMAS
VARNA FREE UNIVERSITY
ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011
Ultimate expression of integration
The primary problem of international organization is the achievement of a stable peace among nation-states.
European integration is the process of political, legal, economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
In the present day, European integration has primarily come about through the EU and the Council of Europe.European Integration
Pan-Europa Manifesto (1923) the first to conceive of a union of European nations was Richard Nikolaus.
League of Nations (1929) Aristide Briand, who gave a speech in favor of a European Union and in 1930 who wrote his "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France.
At the end of WWII, the continental political climate favoured unity in Western Europe, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent.
"The United States of Europe"History ofEuropean Integration
The idea of European integration led to the creation of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in 1949.
The most important achievement of the Council of Europe
is the European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 with its European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which serves as a de facto supreme court for human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout Europe.
In accordance with its Statute of 1949, the Council of Europe works to achieve greater unity among its members based on common values, such as human rights and democracy.
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) in July 1973 is a trans-Atlantic intergovernmental organization whose aim is to secure stability in Europe.
The OSCE develops 3 lines of activities, namely the:
(i)Politico-Military Dimension, mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution
(ii) Economic and Environmental Dimension, the monitoring, alerting and assistance in case of economic and environmental threats;
(iii)Human Dimension, full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Low Countries region
European Free Trade Association
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in the Treaty of Paris, which came into force on 23 July 1952. a few Western European states agreed to confer powers over their steel and coal production to the (ECSC)
European Atomic Energy Community (or Euroatom) This transfer of national powers to a "Community" to be exercised by its Commission was paralled under the 1957 Treaty of Rome.
European Economic Community (EEC) in 1967, the Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) combine the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC
In 1987, the Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome that formally established the single European market and the European Political Cooperation.
The Communities still had independent personalities although were increasingly integrated, and over the years were transformed into what is now called the EU.
The European Union (EU) is an association of 27 sovereign member states , that by treaty have delegated certain of their competences to common institutions, in order to coordinate their policies in a number of areas, without however constituting a new state on top of the member states.
Officially established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing EEC.
The institutions of the EU, its parliamentarians, judges, commissioners and secretariat, the governments of its member states as well as their people, all play a role in European Integration.
Nevertheless, the question of who plays the key role is disputed as there are different theories on European Integration focusing on different actors and agency.
Free Trade Area (FTA)
Education (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students)
Charter of Fundamental Rights
Right to vote
Visa policy in EU
Staff of 24,000
HQ in Brussels, Belgium
Commission has 27 individual members – one from each member state
Chosen for 4-year renewable terms
Lacks formal autonomous power except for day-to-day EU operations
Reports to, and implements policies of, the Council of Ministers
Meeting of the relevant ministers of each member state – politicians who control the bureaucrats
Reflects states’ resistance to yielding sovereignty
Voting system is based on each state’s population, but in practice it operates by consensus on major policy issues.
Has a rotating presidency (with limited power)
European Council (1970s)
Falls somewhat short of a true legislature passing laws for all of Europe
At present, it operates partly as a watchdog over the Commission, but with some power to legislate.
Must approve the Commission’s budget but no item by item control.
Shares power with the Council under a “co-decision procedure.”
Economic and Social Committee
European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)
There is no fixed end result of the process of integration. Integration and enlargement pf the EU are major issues in the politics of Europe, both at European, national and local level.
Integration may conflict with national sovereignty and cultural identity by eurosceptics.
Euroscepticism or Euroskepticism is a general term used to describe criticism of the EU, and opposition to the process of European Integration, existing throughout the political spectrum.
the main source of euroscepticism has been the notion that integration weakens the nation state.
eurosceptic include perceptions of the EU being undemocratic or too bureaucratic.
There are two different strains of Eurosceptic thought:
Hard euroscepticism is the opposition to membership of, or the existence of, the European Union in its current form as a matter of principle.
Soft euroscepticism is support for the existence of, and membership of, a form of European Union, but opposition to particular EU policies, and opposition to a federal Europe.
Harmsen, Robert; Spiering, Menno (2005). Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration. Rodopi. ISBN9789042019461.
Szczerbiak, Aleks; Taggart, Paul A. (2008). Opposing Europe?. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN9780199258307.