Three great changes in the pattern and organization of human settlement. The transition from hunting and fishing to agriculture. This transition occurred in the Neolithic Age. Groups of hunters and gatherers, without permanent homes, began to settle in more or less permanent dwellings (i.e., dwellin
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1. Migration and Urbanization
2. Three great changes in the pattern and organization of human settlement The transition from hunting and fishing to agriculture. This transition occurred in the Neolithic Age. Groups of hunters and gatherers, without permanent homes, began to settle in more or less permanent dwellings (i.e., dwellings that would last more than a season). This was the beginning of rural settlement. Population increased markedly, probably from only a few million to many million.
3. The emergence of cities. Cities first appeared in Mesopotamia (Iraq) around 3,500BC. Urban settlement gradually spread to the Nile Valley (Egypt), the Indus Valley (Pakistan), and later to the Hoang-Ho Valley (China). Urban settlements in Mexico and Peru developed later and independently. Urban areas required more organized social bodies, and clearly they permitted higher standards of living. Record-keeping became necessary as a supplement to human memory. Written languages developed. In an important sense, recorded history began with the establishment of cities. This form of civilization lasted for over 5,000 years, until approximately 200 years ago. However, a substantial fraction of the population of various countries and the world in general did not live in cities, but rather lived in rural areas.
4. The age of urbanization. In this period, a large fraction of a nation’s population and even the world’s population (perhaps even more than half) reside in cities. This phenomenon developed with the industrial revolution. Science, technology, and powerful machinery have allowed the building of extremely large cities that accommodate correspondingly extremely large populations with high density.
Lewis Mumford, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1961.
Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969.
6. WHY DO CITIES GROW? WHY DOES URBANIZATION OCCUR?
Let U = urban population
R = rural population
T = total population
T = U + R
Urban growth refers to an increase to U.
Urbanization refers to an increase in U/T.
Urban growth can occur without urbanization if U grows, but R grows faster.
7. Continued... Thus, urbanization requires that the rate of urban population growth exceed the rate of rural population growth.
Suppose that we define a society as “urbanized” if a majority of its population lives in urban areas:
U/T > 0.5.
14. Factual evidence: 1. Germany (1964): output per capita 20-25% higher in million + cities compared to others 17% higher in million + cities than in cities of 0.5-1.0 million 2. Sweden (1967): average income per worker 33% higher in Stockholm than in small towns 12% higher in Stockholm than in other large metro areas 3. Japan (1965): average per capita income 20% higher in areas with 3,000 + persons per sq. kilometer than in areas with 1,000-3,000 persons per sq. kilometer 70% higher in areas with 1,000-3,000 persons per sq. kilometer than in areas with less than 500 persons per sq. kilometer 4. U. S. (1959): hourly earnings 30% higher in SMSAs of million + than in rural areas and small towns 15% higher in SMSAs of million + than in SMSAs of less than 500,000
19. Three trends in U.S. urban growth that persisted throughout the 20th century Movement to warm, dry places.
Movement to “new” urban areas built around the car rather than “old” urban areas built around public transportation.
Movement to cities with stong human capital (skill) bases.