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Chapter 16- Tolerance and autoimmunity. Where we’re going- Brief look at just a few diseases- A longer look at theoretical causes. Experimental models. Mice that get diseases like diabetes and lupus Experimental systems. Complete Freund’s adjuvant- big stimulator of the immune system!.

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chapter 16 tolerance and autoimmunity
Chapter 16- Tolerance and autoimmunity
  • Where we’re going-
  • Brief look at just a few diseases-
  • A longer look at theoretical causes
experimental models
Experimental models
  • Mice that get diseases like diabetes and lupus
  • Experimental systems
so what causes autoimmunity
So what causes autoimmunity?
  • We know about clonal deletion of B cells, and negative selection of T cells- BUT we still have self-reactive T & B cells out there, but they’re anergic- peripheral tolerance-so there’s something about the way a self-reactive T cell normally sees its antigen that suppresses it- and that isn’t working in autoimmunity.
  • Study the next slide!
slide8

Multiple events could be involved!

EAE, heart attack Ab’s, anti-sperm Ab’s post-vasectomy

IDDM Pancreatic cells- hi levels of MHC I &II! 20-9

A viral peptide is presented by MHCII- it looks like self- stimulates self-rxtive Th cell- Self-peptides are not normally on MCHII!

LPS, EBV in mono- AIDS patients have viruses & non-specific Ab’s.

so what do we do about these
So- what do we do about these
  • Steroids- useful, blunt instrument- cyclosporin is slightly less blunt- used in transplantation.
  • We can NAIL these diseases in mice! Human trials-????
slide12

Activated T cells have IL2R

Vaccinate with dead specific Tcells

Competitively inhibit binding of bad peptides with similar peptides.

things to know
Things to know
  • A few diseases and their autoimmune cause- MS, Graves, IDDM, rheumatic fever- mainly cell-mediated or Ab-mediated, or both.
  • Experimental systems- EAE in particular.
  • Ways we become autoimmune- Fig. 16-12
  • Potential treatments.
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