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Fronting and inversion. Emphatic structures. Fronting and inversion. DEFINITIONS: Fronting : this is when we start a sentence with sth (i.e. a complement of “be” or an adverbial of place or direction ) that is not the subject : Up jumped the cat.

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Fronting and inversion
Fronting and inversion

Emphaticstructures


Fronting and inversion1
Fronting and inversion

DEFINITIONS:

Fronting: thisiswhenwestart a sentencewithsth (i.e. a complement of “be” oran adverbial of place ordirection) thatisnotthesubject:

Upjumpedthe cat.

Inversion: thisiswhenthewordorder in a statementisnotthetypicalsubject + verb, butauxiliary + subject + verb:

NeverdidIstoplovingyou.


Fronting and inversion2
Fronting and inversion

USES:

We use fronting and inversion:

  • Becausewewanttoemphasizewhatweput at thebeginning of thesentence

  • In formal texts


Fronting
Fronting

Structure:

FRONTED/EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + VERB + SUBJECT:

Herecomesthe doctor.

  • Whenthesubjectis a personal pronoun, wekeepthe usual wordorder(fronted + subject+ verb):

    Herehe comes. (Not: Herecomes he).

  • Wedon’t use “DO”:

    Thecatjumped up. –>

    Up didjumpthecat Upjumpedthe cat.


Fronting1
Fronting

Uses:

Wefindthewordorder FRONTED ELEMENT + VERB + SUBJECT:

  • Whenthecomplement of “be” isfronted:

    HisspecialityisAndaluciangastronomy. 

    Andaluciangastronomyishisspeciality.

    A beachhutis standing onthesand. 

    Standing onthesandis a beachhut.

  • Whenan adverbial of place, directionor time isfronted:

    Anoldwomanwasbehindthedesk. –>

    Behindthedeskwasanoldwoman. (place)

    Joan walkedintotheroom. –>

    Intotheroomwalked Joan. (direction)

    The scouts camefirst. 

    Firstcamethe scouts. (time)


Inversion
Inversion

Structure:

EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT + VERB

  • Whenthesentencedoesnotcontainanauxiliaryverb, we use a form of “do”:

    Werarelyvisitthatpart of thetown. 

    Rarely do wevisitthatpart of thetown.

    Emphasized el. – aux – subject – verb


Inversion1
Inversion

Uses:

Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL. + SUBJECT + VERB:

  • Whena negativeword/phraseisput at thebeginning of thesentence:

    Notuntil I got homedid I realisehowlucky I hadbeen.

    Under no circumstancesshouldyouexerciseaftereating a heavy meal.

    Neverbeforehad I seenanything so beautiful.

    No longercan boys and girls pick up theirskillsfromtheirparents.

    No soonerhad Tim left, thanthephonerang.

    A: I can’tswim. B: Neither/ Norcan I. (With “neither/nor” thereis no mainverbafterthesubject)


Inversion2
Inversion

Uses:

Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL. + SUBJECT + VERB:

  • When a limitingword/phrase (only/little) isput at thebeginning of thesentence:

    Onlyafterherdeathwas I abletoaprreciateher.

    Onlywhen I tookthe testdid I realisehowlittle I knew.

    Onlylaterdidsherealisethatshehadbeengiventhewrongchange.

    Little did I know that the course of my life was about to change.

    “Little” (adverb) isusedhereto say that someone did not know or think that something would happen or was true.


Inversion3
Inversion

Uses:

Wefindthewordorder AUXILIARY + SUBJECT + VERB:

(Heretheauxiliaryverbistheemphasizedelement)

  • In conditionalclauses, whenwedon’t use theconditionalconjuntionbutstartwiththeauxiliaries “should/were/had”:

  • Firstconditional: SHOULD + SUBJECT + INFINITIVE VERB

    Ifyouarrive late, gostraighttomy office. 

    Shouldyouarrive late, gostraighttomy office.

  • Secondconditional: WERE + SUBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE VERB

    Ifwereducedtheprice, wewouldmake no profit. 

    Wereweto reduce theprice, wewouldmake no profit.

  • Thirdconditional: HAD + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT VERB

    If I hadknown, I wouldhaveprotestedstrongly. 

    Had I known, I wouldhaveprotestedstrongly.


Inversion4
Inversion

Uses:

Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL.(=MAIN VERB) + SUBJECT:

  • When “so” isused at thebeginning of a sentence/clause:

    So successfulwasherbusinessthat Marie retired at theage of 50.

    Weleftearly and sodidmyfriends.

    A: I’mhungry. B: So am I.

  • When“such” isused at thebeginning of a sentence:

    Suchisthepopularity of theplaythatthetheatreislikelyto be full everynight.


Fronting and inversion3
Fronting and inversion

Createdby:

Carmen Luisa Pérez Amaro


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