Conflicts in Africa
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Conflicts in Africa. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Formerly called Zaire (1971-1997) 3 rd largest country in Africa (land size) Second Congo War beginning in 1998 devastated the country Involved 7 foreign armies Referred to as the African World War

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Conflicts in Africa

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Conflicts in africa

Conflicts in Africa


Democratic republic of the congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Formerly called Zaire (1971-1997)

  • 3rd largest country in Africa (land size)

  • Second Congo War beginning in 1998 devastated the country

    • Involved 7 foreign armies

    • Referred to as the African World War

    • War killed 5.4 million people – world’s deadliest conflict since WWII


Conflicts in africa

  • 1996 – Rwandan Hutu militia used refugee camps in eastern Zaire

  • The Hutu militia forces allied with the Zairian armed forces to launch a campaign against Congolese ethnic Tutsis in eastern Zaire

  • Rwandan and Ugandan armies invaded Zaire to overthrow the government and control the mineral resources

  • The 2nd war led by rebel militias, backed by Rwanda and Uganda, began in 1998


Conflicts in africa

  • Democratic Republic of Congo is considered to be the richest country in the world regarding natural resources

  • Among the poorest countries in the word – 2nd lowest GDP

  • Fragile government has allowed continued conflict and human rights abuses

  • In 2009 people in the country were reported dying at a rate of 45,000 each month

  • Death toll is due to widespread disease and famine


Conflicts in africa

  • UN have denounced the human rights abuses but have done little to help

  • Impact of armed conflict on civilians:

    • Destruction of property

    • Widespread sexual violence

    • Civilians fleeing their homes

    • 200,000 women have been raped

    • 76% of the people in the country have been affected in some way by the conflict

    • Cannibalism


Conflicts in africa

Refugees


Conflicts in africa

Burundi Civil

War: 1993 –

2005

*Ethnic violence between Tutsi dominated army and Hutu rebel groups


Conflicts in africa

*200,000 – 300,000 people were killed

*Over 500,000 people (9% of population) have been displaced

*Caused serious health, water, and malnutrition problems in camps for Hutus


Burundi civil war

Burundi Civil War

  • Began after the killing of president Melchior Ndadaye in 1993 by a Tutsi extremist

  • 85% of population are Hutu

  • Tutsi’s are educated – ethnic discrimination

  • Army was controlled by the Tutsi

  • Burundi is poor and densely populated

  • 4/5’s (80%) of the population – subsistence agriculture/farming


Conflicts in africa

  • 1996 – countries put an economic embargo on exports (coffee and tea)

  • Civilians (Hutu) were rounded up and forcibly moved into camps by the Burundi (Tutsi) armed forced

  • The camps were breeding grounds for death, disease, and resentment

  • UN workers were killed trying to provide support

  • Estimated 340,000 are in Tanzania


Conflicts in africa

Rwanda Genocide


Rwanda

Rwanda


Rwandan genocide

Rwandan Genocide

  • Occurred in 1994

  • Mass murder of around 850,000 people – some reports have the death toll to be 1 million – 20% of the country’s population

  • Took place for approximately 100 days after the assassination of the Hutu leader

  • It was a conflict between the Tutsi minority group and the majority Hutu who had come to power


Conflicts in africa

  • 1990 – Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda in an attempt to defeat the Hutu-led government

  • They began the Rwandan Civil War

  • As a result of the civil war many Hutu gravitated toward the Hutu Power ideology

  • Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave the Hutu and must be resisted at all costs


Rwanda genocide

Rwanda Genocide


Conflicts in africa

  • Many Hutu in the north were displaced

  • Cease fire in 1993

  • The assassination of Habyarimana in 1994 set off the Hutus’ conducting mass killings of Tutsis

  • Tutsis eventually defeated the government army and seized control of the country

  • Created 2 million refugees


Conflicts in africa

Uganda Genocide


Uganda genocide

Uganda Genocide

  • The people of Uganda have suffered severe human rights violations since 1962. Between 1966 and 1986:

    • Denied freedom of opinion

    • Media was state controlled

    • Court verdicts were not respected by the security forces

  • More than 2 million people have been killed, maimed, imprisoned, or forced into exile

  • Political change has come through violence


Conflicts in africa

  • 1966-1971: 1stObote regime - 400-1,000 Baganda people were murdered

  • 1971-1979: Amin Regime – targeted the Acholi and Langi people, thousands were killed

    • More than 80,000 people were forced to leave Uganda

  • Many people were killed during the Tanzania led war to oust Amin


Conflicts in africa

  • 1980-1985: 2ndObote regime – caused the deaths of more than 300,000 people (Baganda’s)

  • 1986-2003: More than 100,00 people living in the Acholi region were killed and more than 20,000 children abducted


Uganda genocide memorial

Uganda Genocide Memorial


Un report october 2010

UN Report: October, 2010

  • Found massacres and sexual enslavement of Congolese by the Uganda People’s Defense Force and Rwanda Patriotic Front

  • Civilians were killed over the charcoal trade and taking gold, and timber

  • Ugandan soldiers fired randomly in a village

  • Some civilians died as a result of being burned alive in their homes

  • Uganda and Rwanda governments have tried to block the UN report


Conflicts in africa

Should countries get involved?


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