Matching return migrants’ competencies and labour market needs – the case of Polish returnees. Paweł Kaczmarczyk Centre of Migration Research University of Warsaw. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EMIGRATION IN LATVIA AND THE OTHER BALTIC COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
Matching return migrants’ competencies and labour market needs – the case of Polish returnees
Centre of Migration Research
University of Warsaw
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EMIGRATION IN LATVIA AND THE OTHER BALTIC
COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
17 December 2012, Riga
Source: Own elaboration based on the CSO data
The meaning of diaspora
Migration in the transition period: temporary / circular mobility, ‘incomplete migration’, fluid migration (Engbersen et al. 2012) flexible plans and strategies very nature of ‘return’
Scale of return migration:
Differences between estimated stocks of migrants? Questionable…
Polish LFS data (II quarter 2008):
2004-2008 580 thousand return migrants (or persons with migratory experiences)
1989-2008 1.05 million (2.7% of the total population)
Number of persons with migratory experience and staying temporarily abroad: 3.5 million (9% of the total population.
GENERALLY: massive migration in the post-accession period led to significant reverse flow of return migrants.
Structural features selectivity of return migration
Return migrants vis a vis sending population: younger, better educated, more often male and single
Return migrants vis a vis emigrants
Source: Anacka and Fihel 2012.
Structural features selectivty of return migration – destination countries
Source: Own elaboration based on Anacka and Fihel 2012.
Structural features selectivity of return migration regional dimension
Source: Anacka and Fihel 2012a.
Labour market performance of returnees – based on the 2008 LFS module:
the labour market situation of Polish returnees not significantly different from the position of those who were immobile around 69% of return migrants employed as compared to 63% of non-migrants; unemployment rate of returnees around 2 percentage points higher;
participation rates of returnees relatively higher than in the case of persons without migratory experience
return migrants more exposed to the risk of being unemployed (as compared to non-migrants);
the highest risk of unemployment noted in the case of those with secondary education;
high risk of being not active for young persons with short-term migration experience
GENERALLY: migratory experience influences labour market performance in a negative way effect of migration or the very profile of recent migrants?
Return migration and transfer of soft skills social remittances (flows of ideas, norms etc.)
Masz PLan na powrót? [Have you got a PLan to return?]
Governmet initiative launched in 2008
Main premises: 1) returns are an inevitable consequence of mass migration; 2) the responsibility of the government should not be to influence individuals’ decisions to return but to enable them with a tool enabling making rational choices
Aim: not to stimulate returns but to enable ‘smooth’ return to Poland
System of services for returning migrants: dedicated website, preparation and distribution of a ‘Return migrant handbook - Returner’ (manual or guide-book for returnees), online employment office services, advice on investment and business opportunities in the country.
Removal of barriers for persons planning to return to Poland: the Tax Abolition Act in order to avoid double taxation (2008), introduction of tax credit and investment allowance, grants for individual technology transfer, facilitating the recognition of education and qualifications acquired abroad, easier acquisition or restoration of Polish citizenship.
Activities aiming at individual return migrants and their families: particularly actions in the field of education (both abroad as well as in the country – e.g. procedures to help children returning to Poland).
Activities aiming at public administration, including training of civil servants who were supposed to have contacts with returnees.
Return migration to Poland: programs and initiatives
Selectivity of migration / selectivity of return
Returnees on the labour market opportunities and challenges (role of push factors)
Programs targeting persons staying abroad and returnees
Evidence based initiatives?
Importance of external conditions (economic downturn)
Policies targeting returnees or general labour market policies (with only some specific measures, e.g. language training) (?)