Overview of wastewater and system types
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Source. Distribution Box. Drainfield (soil treatment area). Septic tank with effluent screen. Soil. Overview of Wastewater and System Types. NC Certified Subsurface Systems Inspector School. Characterizing wastewater. What’s in it? How much is there?

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Overview of wastewater and system types

Source

Distribution

Box

Drainfield (soil treatment area)

Septic

tank with

effluent screen

Soil

Overview of Wastewater and System Types

NC Certified Subsurface Systems Inspector School


Characterizing wastewater

Characterizing wastewater

  • What’s in it?

  • How much is there?

  • What are the consequences of inadequate treatment?


Composition of domestic wastewater

Composition of Domestic Wastewater

Toilet

Laundry

Bathing

Kitchen

Garb. Grinder

Misc


Organic material

Organic material

Waste from plant or animal sources

  • Can be dissolved, a solid or a liquid

  • Broken down and consumed by microbes (aerobes and anaerobes)

  • As it decays, dissolved oxygen is depleted

  • Measured as BOD5


Overview of wastewater and system types

Inorganic material

  • Stable compounds

    • Not easily broken down by microorganisms

  • Minerals, metals, dissolved salts

    • Sand, silt, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, sodium

  • Residential flows have low metal content

  • Stormwater, inflow and infiltration

    • Cracked pipes, leaky manhole covers


Solids

Solids

Total solids

Any suspended or dissolved material

Organic or inorganic

Settleable solids

Heavier suspended particles that settle out during preliminary treatment


Solids cont

Solids (cont.)

Total suspended solids (TSS)

Solids that don’t pass through filter paper

Mixture of organic and inorganic particles

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Solids that pass through a filter

Minerals, salts, metals, ions


Tss impacts on treatment

TSS impacts on treatment

High levels lead to clogging

Reduce efficiency of treatment system

Block or plug distribution pipes

Seal off and plug voids in soil and filters


Fats oils and grease fog

Fats, Oils, and Grease(FOG)

Animal or vegetable-based FOG

Residential kitchens

Degradable by microorganisms

Petroleum-based FOG

Industry/automotive repair

Bath oils, moisturizing cream, tanning oils

Not readily broken down by microorganisms


Environmental impacts of fogs

Environmental impacts of FOGs

Adds to thickness of septic tank scum layer

Clog pipes, treatment systems, drainfields

Collect and harden on surface, trap trash, plants and other materials

Cause foul odors and attract insect pests

FOG


Overview of wastewater and system types

Rhinovirus – common cold

Clostridium in septic tank

Pseudomonas in drainfield

Influenza virus

E. coli 0157H7

Staphylococcus

Pathogenic organisms


Overview of wastewater and system types

Pathogenic organisms

  • Disease-causing organisms

    • Bacterial, viruses, Helminths (worms), protozoa

  • Comfortable in human digestive system

  • Conditioned to living in low oxygen conditions

  • Difficulty surviving in air-filled environments


Health impacts

Health impacts

Pathogens can cause disease in humans

Typhoid

Cholera

Dysentery

Hepatitis

Salmonellosis

Poliomyeilitis


Bacteria

Bacteria

  • Extremely common in sewage

  • Microscopic, single celled organisms

  • Found naturally

  • Host cell not needed for reproduction

  • Some are pathogenic – indicator organisms – Fecal Coliforms


Fecal coliform

Fecal coliform

Indicator microorganism

Cultured in standard tests to indicate contamination

Measured as colonies/100 mL


Infectious dose and persistence

Infectious dose and persistence


Nutrients

Nutrients

Essential for growth of living organisms

  • Major nutrients

    • N, P, K

  • Secondary nutrients

    • Mg, Ca, S

  • Micronutrients

    • Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B


Health impacts1

Nitrate (NO3-)

Blue baby syndrome – methemoglobinemia

Bloodstream is starved of oxygen

May also be problematic to older adults

Linked to miscarriages, birth defects, cancer

Health impacts


Environmental impacts of excess nutrients

Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of surface waters

Can occur naturally

Accelerated by inefficient or incomplete wastewater treatment

Algal blooms, depletion of dissolved oxygen

Fish kills and harm to other wildlife

Surface scum, increased odor, insects

Increases cost and difficulty of drinking water purification

Freshwater-phosphorous; Marine – nitrogen

Environmental impacts of excess nutrients


Metals

Metals

Inorganic chemical compounds

NOT often found in residential wastewater

Present in vitamins in very low amounts

Stable and resistant to decomposition

Some essential for animal & plant nutrition

At higher levels some can be highly toxic


Persistent organic chemicals

Persistent organic chemicals

Stable organic compounds

Slow to decompose; can persist in soil and groundwater for years

Many are synthetic

Not usually found in residential wastewater unless homeowner flushes something they shouldn’t

Solvents & household cleansers

Paint

Medical products


Source

Source

  • The user

  • The amount of flow

  • Everything that goes down the drain


Wastewater loading

Wastewater Loading

  • Quality

    • Organic Load

  • Quantity

    • Hydraulic load


Wastewater quantity

WASTEWATER QUANTITY

  • Daily Flow

    • Design

    • Actual

  • Flow Estimates

    • People served

    • Square Footage

  • Peak Flows

    • Daily - Runoff Period

    • Weekly

    • Seasonal


Wastewater treatment processes

Wastewater Treatment Processes

  • Physical

  • Chemical

  • Biological

    • Aerobic

    • Anaerobic


Point vs non point sources

Point vs. non-point sources

  • Point source

    • Can identify the source

  • Non-point source

    • Source is less clear


Introduction to onsite wastewater systems

Introduction to Onsite Wastewater Systems


Parts of a subsurface system

Parts of a subsurface system

  • Source

  • Collection systems

  • Primary treatment or Pretreatment

  • Advanced treatment

  • Disinfection

  • Distribution

  • Dispersal


Source1

Source

  • Flow

  • Constituents


Overview of wastewater and system types

Flow

  • Design daily flow

    • Based upon projected flow from facility

      • Bedrooms, seats, people

  • Actual average daily flow

    • Varies considerably

    • Average daily flow >70% of design is a red flag


Collection systems

Collection Systems

  • A collection system

    • gathers wastewater from sources

    • conveys it to treatment system

    • components may include:

      • sewer lines, force mains, manholes, pumps, holding tanks

  • Types of collection systems

    • Gravity

    • Pressure

    • Combined


Primary treatment components

Primary treatment components

  • Typically, a septic tank


Advanced treatment components

Advanced treatment components

  • Some type of aerobic treatment

ATU’s

Media Filters


Disinfection components

Disinfection components

  • May be required to reduce pathogen levels

UV

Light

Chlorine


Distribution components

Distribution components

Pressure Manifold

D-box


Dispersal components

Dispersal components

  • Trenches

  • Beds

  • Low-pressure pipe (LPP)

  • Drip dispersal


Basic types of onsite wastewater systems used in north carolina

Basic Types of Onsite Wastewater Systems used in North Carolina


Basic gravity system components

Basic Gravity System Components

Source

Drainfield

or

Soil Treatment Area

Distribution

Box

Septic

tank with

effluent screen

Soil


X section of conventional trench

X-section of conventional trench


Innovative trench components gravelless systems

Innovative Trench components: Gravelless Systems


Shallow placement drainfield

Shallow placement drainfield

Drainlines and Gravel

Suitable Fill

Aerobic Soil

Water Table


Areal fill mound drainfield

Areal Fill (“Mound”) drainfield

Trenches

Suitable Fill

Aerobic Soil

Water Table


Installation of mound

Installation of mound


Pressure dosed gravity

Source

Pressure manifold

Dosing

Tank

Drainfield

Soil

Septic Tank with effluent screen

Pressure-dosed gravity


Manifold in vault

Manifold in Vault


Long manifold on flat site

Long manifold on flat site


Basic lpp system components

Basic LPP System Components

Source

Manifold

Dosing

Tank

Turn up

LPP Laterals

Aerobic Soil

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen


Sleeved pipe

Sleeved pipe


Low pressure pipe lpp

Low Pressure Pipe (LPP)


Basic drip irrigation system components direct st effluent

Basic Drip Irrigation System Components (Direct ST Effluent)

Source

Dosing

Tank

Headworks assembly

Drip Laterals and supply and return manifolds

Aerobic Soil

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen


Basic drip irrigation system components adv treated effluent

Basic Drip Irrigation System Components (Adv. Treated effluent)

Source

Media filter and

possible

recirculation

Drip Laterals and supply and return manifolds

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen

Aerobic Soil

Headworks assembly

Dosing

Tank


Advanced treatment

Advanced Treatment

Sand, Peat, Textile, ATU


Overview of wastewater and system types

Single pass pressure dosed sand filter

with pump basin – cross section


Overview of wastewater and system types

ATUs


Overview of wastewater and system types

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