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Source. Distribution Box. Drainfield (soil treatment area). Septic tank with effluent screen. Soil. Overview of Wastewater and System Types. NC Certified Subsurface Systems Inspector School. Characterizing wastewater. What’s in it? How much is there?

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overview of wastewater and system types

Source

Distribution

Box

Drainfield (soil treatment area)

Septic

tank with

effluent screen

Soil

Overview of Wastewater and System Types

NC Certified Subsurface Systems Inspector School

characterizing wastewater
Characterizing wastewater
  • What’s in it?
  • How much is there?
  • What are the consequences of inadequate treatment?
composition of domestic wastewater
Composition of Domestic Wastewater

Toilet

Laundry

Bathing

Kitchen

Garb. Grinder

Misc

organic material
Organic material

Waste from plant or animal sources

  • Can be dissolved, a solid or a liquid
  • Broken down and consumed by microbes (aerobes and anaerobes)
  • As it decays, dissolved oxygen is depleted
  • Measured as BOD5
slide5

Inorganic material

  • Stable compounds
    • Not easily broken down by microorganisms
  • Minerals, metals, dissolved salts
    • Sand, silt, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, sodium
  • Residential flows have low metal content
  • Stormwater, inflow and infiltration
    • Cracked pipes, leaky manhole covers
solids
Solids

Total solids

Any suspended or dissolved material

Organic or inorganic

Settleable solids

Heavier suspended particles that settle out during preliminary treatment

solids cont
Solids (cont.)

Total suspended solids (TSS)

Solids that don’t pass through filter paper

Mixture of organic and inorganic particles

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Solids that pass through a filter

Minerals, salts, metals, ions

tss impacts on treatment
TSS impacts on treatment

High levels lead to clogging

Reduce efficiency of treatment system

Block or plug distribution pipes

Seal off and plug voids in soil and filters

fats oils and grease fog
Fats, Oils, and Grease(FOG)

Animal or vegetable-based FOG

Residential kitchens

Degradable by microorganisms

Petroleum-based FOG

Industry/automotive repair

Bath oils, moisturizing cream, tanning oils

Not readily broken down by microorganisms

environmental impacts of fogs
Environmental impacts of FOGs

Adds to thickness of septic tank scum layer

Clog pipes, treatment systems, drainfields

Collect and harden on surface, trap trash, plants and other materials

Cause foul odors and attract insect pests

FOG

slide11

Rhinovirus – common cold

Clostridium in septic tank

Pseudomonas in drainfield

Influenza virus

E. coli 0157H7

Staphylococcus

Pathogenic organisms

slide12

Pathogenic organisms

  • Disease-causing organisms
    • Bacterial, viruses, Helminths (worms), protozoa
  • Comfortable in human digestive system
  • Conditioned to living in low oxygen conditions
  • Difficulty surviving in air-filled environments
health impacts
Health impacts

Pathogens can cause disease in humans

Typhoid

Cholera

Dysentery

Hepatitis

Salmonellosis

Poliomyeilitis

bacteria
Bacteria
  • Extremely common in sewage
  • Microscopic, single celled organisms
  • Found naturally
  • Host cell not needed for reproduction
  • Some are pathogenic – indicator organisms – Fecal Coliforms
fecal coliform
Fecal coliform

Indicator microorganism

Cultured in standard tests to indicate contamination

Measured as colonies/100 mL

nutrients
Nutrients

Essential for growth of living organisms

  • Major nutrients
    • N, P, K
  • Secondary nutrients
    • Mg, Ca, S
  • Micronutrients
    • Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B
health impacts1
Nitrate (NO3-)

Blue baby syndrome – methemoglobinemia

Bloodstream is starved of oxygen

May also be problematic to older adults

Linked to miscarriages, birth defects, cancer

Health impacts
environmental impacts of excess nutrients
Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of surface waters

Can occur naturally

Accelerated by inefficient or incomplete wastewater treatment

Algal blooms, depletion of dissolved oxygen

Fish kills and harm to other wildlife

Surface scum, increased odor, insects

Increases cost and difficulty of drinking water purification

Freshwater-phosphorous; Marine – nitrogen

Environmental impacts of excess nutrients
metals
Metals

Inorganic chemical compounds

NOT often found in residential wastewater

Present in vitamins in very low amounts

Stable and resistant to decomposition

Some essential for animal & plant nutrition

At higher levels some can be highly toxic

persistent organic chemicals
Persistent organic chemicals

Stable organic compounds

Slow to decompose; can persist in soil and groundwater for years

Many are synthetic

Not usually found in residential wastewater unless homeowner flushes something they shouldn’t

Solvents & household cleansers

Paint

Medical products

source
Source
  • The user
  • The amount of flow
  • Everything that goes down the drain
wastewater loading
Wastewater Loading
  • Quality
    • Organic Load
  • Quantity
    • Hydraulic load
wastewater quantity
WASTEWATER QUANTITY
  • Daily Flow
    • Design
    • Actual
  • Flow Estimates
    • People served
    • Square Footage
  • Peak Flows
    • Daily - Runoff Period
    • Weekly
    • Seasonal
wastewater treatment processes
Wastewater Treatment Processes
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
    • Aerobic
    • Anaerobic
point vs non point sources
Point vs. non-point sources
  • Point source
    • Can identify the source
  • Non-point source
    • Source is less clear
parts of a subsurface system
Parts of a subsurface system
  • Source
  • Collection systems
  • Primary treatment or Pretreatment
  • Advanced treatment
  • Disinfection
  • Distribution
  • Dispersal
source1
Source
  • Flow
  • Constituents
slide32
Flow
  • Design daily flow
    • Based upon projected flow from facility
      • Bedrooms, seats, people
  • Actual average daily flow
    • Varies considerably
    • Average daily flow >70% of design is a red flag
collection systems
Collection Systems
  • A collection system
    • gathers wastewater from sources
    • conveys it to treatment system
    • components may include:
      • sewer lines, force mains, manholes, pumps, holding tanks
  • Types of collection systems
    • Gravity
    • Pressure
    • Combined
primary treatment components
Primary treatment components
  • Typically, a septic tank
advanced treatment components
Advanced treatment components
  • Some type of aerobic treatment

ATU’s

Media Filters

disinfection components
Disinfection components
  • May be required to reduce pathogen levels

UV

Light

Chlorine

distribution components
Distribution components

Pressure Manifold

D-box

dispersal components
Dispersal components
  • Trenches
  • Beds
  • Low-pressure pipe (LPP)
  • Drip dispersal
basic gravity system components
Basic Gravity System Components

Source

Drainfield

or

Soil Treatment Area

Distribution

Box

Septic

tank with

effluent screen

Soil

shallow placement drainfield
Shallow placement drainfield

Drainlines and Gravel

Suitable Fill

Aerobic Soil

Water Table

areal fill mound drainfield
Areal Fill (“Mound”) drainfield

Trenches

Suitable Fill

Aerobic Soil

Water Table

pressure dosed gravity

Source

Pressure manifold

Dosing

Tank

Drainfield

Soil

Septic Tank with effluent screen

Pressure-dosed gravity
basic lpp system components
Basic LPP System Components

Source

Manifold

Dosing

Tank

Turn up

LPP Laterals

Aerobic Soil

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen

basic drip irrigation system components direct st effluent
Basic Drip Irrigation System Components (Direct ST Effluent)

Source

Dosing

Tank

Headworks assembly

Drip Laterals and supply and return manifolds

Aerobic Soil

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen

basic drip irrigation system components adv treated effluent
Basic Drip Irrigation System Components (Adv. Treated effluent)

Source

Media filter and

possible

recirculation

Drip Laterals and supply and return manifolds

Septic Tank with

Effluent screen

Aerobic Soil

Headworks assembly

Dosing

Tank

advanced treatment

Advanced Treatment

Sand, Peat, Textile, ATU

slide57

Single pass pressure dosed sand filter

with pump basin – cross section

slide61
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Questions?

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