Chapter 2
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 39

Chapter 2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 2. A Child ’ s World: How We Discover It. Theory. Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to: Organize Explain Guide/Inspire Predict Hypotheses. Basic Theoretical Issues. Nature vs. nurture Active vs. reactive Organismic vs. mechanistic

Download Presentation

Chapter 2

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Chapter 2

Chapter 2

A Child’s World: How We Discover It



  • Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to:

    • Organize

    • Explain

    • Guide/Inspire

    • Predict

      • Hypotheses

Basic theoretical issues

Basic Theoretical Issues

  • Nature vs. nurture

  • Active vs. reactive

    • Organismic vs. mechanistic

  • Continuity vs. discontinuity

    • Quantitative vs. Qualitative

  • Early vs. later experience

  • Stability vs. change

Theories of child development


  • Psychoanalytic theories:

    • Freud and Erikson

    • Behavior is a surface characteristic

    • Need to understand the symbolic workings of the mind

    • Early experiences with parents are emphasized


Freud s theory psychosexual development

Freud’s Theory Psychosexual Development

  • Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

  • Parts of personality

    • Id

    • Ego

    • Superego


Psychosexual stages

Psychosexual Stages

Fixation: Too much or too little gratification

Erikson s theory psychosocial development

Erikson’s TheoryPsychosocial Development

  • Erik Erikson (1902–1994)

    • Modified and expanded Freud’s theory

    • Psychosocial crises

    • Identity

  • Differences from psychosexual development

    • Social interactions

    • Conscious

    • Active actions

    • Eight stages


Learning theories

Learning Theories

  • Behaviorism - John B. Watson

    • Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov

    • Operant conditioning - B. F. Skinner

      • Observable Behavior; individual passively learn behaviors

  • Social Learning Theory

    • Observational learning – Albert Bandura

      • Active participants in learning

Behavioral theories

Behavioral Theories

  • Pavlov’s classical conditioning

    • A neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response originally produced by another stimulus

  • Skinner’s operant conditioning

    • The consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence

    • A behavior followed by Reinforcement or Punishment

Social learning theory

Social Learning Theory

  • Albert Bandura

    • Added Social and Cognitive influences to behaviorism

    • Observational Learning

    • Reciprocal Determinism (B  E  P)

    • Self-Efficacy

    • Child is an active learner

The cognitive perspective

The Cognitive Perspective

Focuses on children’s mental processes and the behavior that reflects those processes

  • Jean Piaget’sCognitive-Developmental Theory

  • Information-Processing Theory

  • Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory


Piaget s cognitive developmental theory

Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

  • Worked with Binet on IQ tests for children

  • Children are “natural physicists”

  • Developmental

    • Think different at different ages

Piaget s four stages of cognitive development


Piaget s basic concepts

Piaget’s Basic Concepts

  • Organization

    • Schemes

  • Adaptation

    • Assimilation

    • Accommodation

    • Equilibration

Information processing theory

Information-Processing Theory

Influenced by the concepts of computer science

  • Input, Storage, Processing, Output

    • Encoding

    • Memory

    • Retrieval

  • Software and Hardware

    • Mental processes

    • Brain

Lev vygotsky s sociocultural theory

Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

  • Sociocultural Theory

    • Culture and social interact to guide cognitive development

    • Thoughts are “created” by the culture we live in and the tools we use

    • Cognitions are created and live in our social world

The contextual perspectiv e

The Contextual Perspective

UrieBronfenbrenner’ s Ecological Theory

  • Reciprocal interactions between individual and their environment.

    • Not a Developmental Theory!

    • Focuses on systems children participate in

Figure 2 2 bronfenbrenner s bioecological theory

Figure 2.2 - Bronfenbrenner’sBioecological Theory

Evolutionary sociobiological perspective

Evolutionary/Sociobiological Perspective

E. O. Wilson and Darwin

  • Ethology: Adaptive behaviorsand critical/sensitive periods. Study animals and apply to humans.

  • Evolutionary Theory: Survival of the fittest and development of adaptive behaviors in a particular society/culture.

Research methods

Research Methods

  • Quantitative research: Deals with objectively measurable data.

    • Based on scientific method: System of established principles and processes of scientific inquiry.

      • Identifies a problem to be studied.

      • Formulates a hypothesis to be tested by research.

      • Collects data.

      • Analyzes the data.

Research methods1

Research Methods

  • Forms tentative conclusions.

  • Disseminates findings.

  • Qualitative research: Interpretation of nonnumerical data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs.

  • Focuses on the how and why of behavior

  • Informs both how they collect data as well as its interpretation

  • Table 2 3 comparing qualitative and quantitative research

    Table 2.3 - Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Research



    • Sample: Group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under study.

      • Should adequately represent the population under study

    Type used by quantitative researchers

    Type used by qualitative researchers

    • Random selection

      • Selection of a sample in such a way that each person in a population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen.

    • Focusedselection

      • Participants are chosen for their ability to communicate the nature of a certain experience.

    Table 2 4 major methods of data collection

    Table 2.4 - Major Methods of Data Collection

    Basic research designs

    Basic Research Designs

    • Case study: Study of a single subject, such as an individual or family.

      • Offers useful in-depth information.

    • Ethnographic study: In-depth study of a culture, which uses a combination of methods including participant observation.

      • Uses a combination of methods, including informal, unstructured interviewing and participant observation.

    Basic research designs1

    Basic Research Designs

    • Participant observation: Observer lives with the people or participates in the activity being observed.

  • Correlational study: Intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists.

    • Variables - Phenomena that change or vary among people or can be varied for purposes of research.

    • Correlations are expressed in terms of direction and magnitude.

  • Basic research designs2

    Basic Research Designs

    • Two variables are related positively if they:

      • Increase or decrease together

    • Two variables have a negative, or inverse, correlation if:

      • One increases and the other decreases

    • Correlations are reported as numbers ranging from +1.0 to –1.0.

    Figure 2 3 scatter plots of positive negative and no correlations

    Figure 2.3 - Scatter Plots of Positive, Negative, and No Correlations

    Basic research designs3

    Basic Research Designs

    • Experiment: Rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other.

      • Experimental group: Group receiving the treatment under study.

      • Control group: Group of people, similar to those in the experimental group, who do not receive the treatment under study.

    Basic research designs4

    Basic Research Designs

    • If the experimenter wants to compare the effects of different treatments, overall sample may be divided into treatment groups.

    • To ensure objectivity, some experiments use double-blind procedures.

      • Neither participants nor experimenters know who is receiving the treatment and who is instead receiving an inert placebo.

    Basic research designs5

    Basic Research Designs

    • Independent variable: Condition over which the experimenter has direct control.

    • Dependent variable: Condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable.

  • Random assignment: Assignment of participants in an experiment to groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being placed in any group.

  • Basic research designs6

    Basic Research Designs

    • Laboratory experiments - Participants are brought to a laboratory, where they experience conditions manipulated by the experimenter.

    • Field experiment - Controlled study conducted in an everyday setting.

    Basic research designs7

    Basic Research Designs

    • Laboratory and field experiments differ in two important respects:

      • Degree of control - Exerted by the experimenter

      • Degree to which findings can be generalized beyond the study situation

    • Natural experiment - Compares people who have been accidentally assigned to separate groups by circumstances of life.

    Advantages and disadvantages of basic research designs

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Basic Research Designs

    Table 2 6 cross sectional longitudinal and sequential research

    Table 2.6 - Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, and Sequential Research

    Collaborative research

    Collaborative Research

    • Meta-analysis - Provides a systematic overview of the research on a topic .

      • Through statistical analysis of the combined findings of multiple studies

      • Used for controversial findings

      • Are an attempt to reconcile disparities across a large number of studies

      • Designs and methodologies of the studies may be inconsistent

    Ethics of research

    Ethics of Research

    • Guidelines of the American Psychological Association cover issues like:

      • Informed consent and avoidance of deception

      • Protection of participants from harm and loss of dignity

      • Right to decline or withdraw from an experiment at any time

      • Responsibility of investigators to correct any undesirable effects

    Ethics of research1

    Ethics of Research

    Three Principles of Ethical Dilemmas

    Ethical Considerations That Can Present Problems

    • Beneficence - Obligation to maximize potential benefits to participants and to minimize potential harm

    • Respect for autonomy - Of those who are unable to exercise their own judgment

    • Justice - Inclusion of diverse groups together with sensitivity to any special impact the research may have on them

    • Right to informed consent

    • Avoidance of deception

    • Right to self-esteem

    • Right to privacy and confidentiality

    Table 2 7 developmental considerations in children s participation in research

    Table 2.7 – Developmental Considerations in Children’s Participation in Research

  • Login