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St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1. Session 1b Opportunities for participation Provision and Barriers. Providing for active leisure – who does what?. Characteristics and goals of the public, private and voluntary sectors Advantages and disadvantages of each

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St johns pe revision course aqa as phed 1

St Johns PE Revision CourseAQA AS PHED 1

Session 1b

Opportunities for participation

Provision and Barriers


Providing for active leisure who does what
Providing for active leisure – who does what?

  • Characteristics and goals of the public, private and voluntary sectors

  • Advantages and disadvantages of each

  • Concept of ‘best value’ in the public sector

  • The role of schools


Recreation who provides
Recreation – Who Provides?

Compulsory Tendering

Best Value, PFI

Private Sector

Local Authority

Who Provides?

Taxes

Policies

Sport Eng

Q3

Voluntary Sector

National Government


Public sector
Public Sector

Public Good

Paid from taxation

Lottery

Social provision - disadvantaged

Subsidised Use

Multi-Sport – Leisure Centres

Pools

Outdoor sport facilities

Parks

Adventure playgrounds

Skateboard parks

Dual use sports halls

Local Authority Leisure Plans

Development/Refurbishment of facilities

Targeting under represented groups Community Health


Private sector
Private Sector

Small – medium size facilities

Specialist areas – squash, health & fitness

Profit driven – high value services

High quality – high cost

Cherry pick – leave large high cost to public sector

No public service committment


Voluntary sector
Voluntary Sector

Not for profit

Provision for members + social responsibility remit

Volunteer organisers 5 million people, 1 billion hours

Clubs – some very exclusive

Facilities – owned, leased, rented

Players pay to pay

Annual subscription

Funded by bar/social club, fund raising

Lottery/Local Authority grant aided

Sport Clubs – all sports!

Ramblers, Environmental groups

Cycling clubs, jogging clubs


Best value
Best Value

Designed to drive up the quality of provision in the public sector and use money more efficiently

  • 1980 - Compulsory Competitive Tendering

    Tendering against private sector

  • 2000 – Best Value

    Challenge, Consult, Compare, Compete

Both strategies have resulted in improvement in public services

Q4


Advantages disadvantages
Advantages - Disadvantages

  • Costs of joining are relatively high

  • Restriction on numbers will mean that some people are unable to join

  • Social exclusivity or actual discrimination against certain groups

  • A sport may suffer from exclusivity image

  • React quickly to meet a demand

  • Can meet individual needs

  • Can restrict membership


  • Advantages disadvantages1
    Advantages - Disadvantages

    • Unplanned and relatively uncontrolled

    • No equal opportunities remit

    • Continuity cannot be guaranteed

    • Financial support from national and local bodies cannot be guaranteed

    • It can still be socially exclusive

    • Huge range of activities at all levels

    • People with enthusiasm and drive can provide the opportunity

    • Costs are very low so rarely an economic disincentive

    • Financial support from local and national government, and local business sponsorship


    Advantages disadvantages2
    Advantages - Disadvantages

    • Funds limited by national and local tax policies

    • L. Authorities in disadvantaged areas have less money to spend

    • L. Authorities cannot borrow money so easily to invest in facilities for the future

    • This sector must act in the public good for the local community - must provide physical recreation facilities

    • Resources allocated from local and national taxation

    • No need to make a commercial profit –can make loss if in the public or community interest


    Participation the role of schools
    Participation - the role of schools

    • Characteristics of each Nat Curric Key Stage

    • Objectives of each NC Key Stage

    • What schools provide and the impact on pupils’ experiences

    • Development of school club links – PESSCLS, Whole Sport plans

    • School Sports Co-ordinator, Sports Colleges

    • Active Sports

    • Sports Leaders UK

    • TOPS programme

    • Benefits to individuals, community and government


    Pe national curriculum aims
    PE – National Curriculum Aims

    Physical confidence, skilfullness and competence

    Opportunities to be creative, competitive and challenged

    Perform in a range of activities

    Positive attitudes towards active, healthy lifestyles..knowledge of the body in action

    Opportunities for all

    Plan, Perform and Evaluate actions – ‘critical performer’

    Discover aptitudes, abilities and preferences, choices about lifelong physical activity.

    Jan07Q2

    Ans


    Nc structure
    NC Structure

    • Key Stages 1-4 (Y0-2, Y3-6, Y7-9, Y10-11)

    • Content areas – Games, athletic activities, swim, gymnastics, dance, outdoor & adventure

    • Theoretical and Practical elements

    • Progression from general > specialised

    • Areas of Assessment

    • End of KS Levels – statements – Levels 1-8 + Exceptional achievement


    Pe nc structure march 2009
    PE NC- Structure - March 2009

    • KS1 – dance, games, gym

    • KS2 – dance, games, gym + 2 from swim, athletic, outdoor/adventure

    • KS3 – 4 from games, gym, dance, athletic, adventure/outdoor or life saving/swimming, fitness and health

    • KS4 – 2 from the above


    Role of the government
    Role of the Government

    • Department of Culture, Media and Sport

      “from the playground to the podium”

    • National Sports Councils/Sport England – advise, invest in and promote community sport

    • Exchequer or Lottery funding

    • Sport pathways – community sport, sport clubs, coaching/officiating, volunteers, facilities


    Effects on school provision
    Effects on School Provision

    • 2001 “The Government’s Plan for Sport” lead to “Game Plan”

    • Major increase in participation – health benefits, reduction in crime, increased social inclsuion

    • Improved international success – ‘feel good’

    • Grass roots focus on under-represented groups

    • NGB - PESSCL, Whole Sport Plans, Active Sports

    • Schools - TOPS programme, Sports Leaders UK, Sports Colleges, School Sport Coordinators


    Using the power of sport to improve the lives of young people.

    Aim - deliver high quality PE and sport to all young people, regardless of ability.

    Top Tots (18m – 3y), Top Start (3-5)

    Top Play (4-9), Top Sports (7-11), Top Link (14-16), Top Sportsability (Disabled)


    Yst schools

    PESSCL enhance the take-up of sport opportunities by 5-16 year olds.

    “By 2008 - 85% of school children to spend a min of 2hrs/week PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum” 5 hour offer

    YST - Schools

    Specialist Sports Colleges - PE and sport at the centre of the curriculum. 480 2008. Raise attainment in the school and local hub

    School Sport Partnerships (SSPs) are groups of schools working together – primary & secondary.

    Partnership Dev Manager > School Sports Co-ordinators


    STEP ON (11-14) In year olds.PE introduced to sports leadership and volunteering, learn how to plan and manage their own sports season.

    STEP IN (14 -16) Through volunteering learn to manage and support school-based sporting events.

    STEP OUT (16-19 ) Move from school to community-based volunteering.

    Leadership Academies (14-19) provide the opportunity to refine and develop volunteering skills and experiences.


    School sport college objectives
    School Sport College - Objectives year olds.

    Whole school improvement - overall personal development & wellbeing of all learners to raise standards and achievement

    Develop an enhanced, inclusive curriculum & e-c programme that maximises participation in PE and Sport

    Community (Secondary ) work with partner secondary schools to provide high quality learning opportunities and standards in PE and Sport

    Raise school standards of attainment in PE and Sport through high quality teaching and learning

    Community (wider inc business /employer partners ) to develop sport opportunities , promoting participation and achievement in Physical Activity and Community Sport.

    Community (Primary) develop high quality teaching and learning in partner primary schools, maximising resources & sharing of good practice.


    Active Sports now superseded by Whole Sport Plans (2009) year olds.

    School Aged Children

    16+ Community Sport

    Elite Performers

    Active Schools

    Active Communities

    World Class Programme

    Youth Sports Trust

    Sport England

    UK Sport/ NIS

    English NGBs - Whole Sport Plans

    British NGB – One Stop Plans

    Planning for grass roots to elite level

    NGBs able to direct own funding

    Measured against Key Performance Indicators


    The sporting relay race year olds.

    Sport England

    Increasing participation: Community sport

    Children and Young People: School/Club Links School/Community links FE /community links

    Sustaining Participation: Player pathways Competitive club sport Volunteering Coaching/ officiating

    • Youth Sport Trust

    • Raising standards in PE and School Sport

    • Increasing the quality and quantity of PE and school sport

    • Opportunities for young leaders and volunteers

    • Supporting talent and competition

    • UK Sport

    • World Class Performance

    • Olympic and Paralympic Success

    • Drug Free Sport

    • World Class events

    • International sporting relations

    Key Partners NGBs, Local Clubs, Schools, Further Education, Higher Education and Local Authorities


    Sports Leaders UK year olds.

    To create an army of volunteers for sport (and other activities) from young people aged 9-19

    Level 1 - Level 3


    Barriers to participation solutions
    Barriers to participation & solutions year olds.

    • Equal opportunity, discrimination, stereotyping, inclusiveness, prejudice - examples from sport

    • Target groups:

      Disability

      Socio-economic class

      Ethnic group

      Gender

    • Solutions to overcome discrimination in sport to raise participation.


    Barriers to participation exam focus
    Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus year olds.

    Barrier to Participation

    What

    Easy marks

    Action

    Hard marks

    Why

    Harder marks

    June05Q2

    Ans


    Opportunity year olds.

    Stereotype

    Barriers to Particpation

    Esteem

    Provision



    Opportunities year olds.

    Sports Equity Alliance made up of:-

    Sporting Equals

    Women’s Sports Foundation

    English Federation of Disability Sport

    Sport Equity Targets – NGBs. Local Authorities

    National Database of where to participate


    Barriers to participation disability
    Barriers to Participation - Disability year olds.

    Work

    Professional, Coach, Administrator Opps?

    PE

    Separate?

    Integrated?

    Legal right

    Public provision

    Private restriction?

    Opportunity

    Sport

    Social expectations

    Role model

    Stereotype

    Participation

    Range of choice

    Barriers

    Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision

    Elite-Performer

    Respected for performance or for overcoming disability

    Esteem

    Provision

    Acceptance < > Respect

    Media

    Coverage?

    Finance

    Facilities

    Training Coaching


    Disability sport types
    Disability Sport - Types year olds.

    Integrated – with able-bodied

    Adapted – version of standard type

    Wheelchair basketball, rugby, volleyball

    Wheelchair marathons

    Blind football, bowls

    Separate – own activities

    Adapted or Designed

    Q7Jan03

    Ans


    Inclusion spectrum
    Inclusion spectrum year olds.

    • Inclusive – everyone included

    • Modified – changes to rules/ equipment to include disabled people

    • Parallel – same activity, but approach differs according to disability

    • Included – specially adapted activities

    • Separate – disabled people practice/ prepare in isolation

    28-52


    Disability sport england disability sport events
    Disability Sport England – Disability Sport Events year olds.

    Creates opportunities for participation in sport for people with all disabilities, at all levels (mostly grass roots)

    Develops profile classification system

    Charity responsible for selecting, preparing, entering, funding and managing Britain' s teams at the Paralympic Games and Paralympic Winter Games

    Parasport - Disability Sport Institute


    British paralympic association
    British Paralympic Association year olds.

    • BPA is umbrella body

    • Co-ordinates arrangements for British disabled athletes to compete internationally

    • Organises special Olympic Games for disabled (Paralympics)

    • Members include: DSE, National Disability Sports Organisations, Scottish Association for the Disabled, GB Wheelchair BBA

    28-52


    National body responsible for developing sport for disabled people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    British Amputees and Les Autres Sports Association

    British Blind Sport

    WheelPower-British Wheelchair Sport

    Mencap Sport

    UK Deaf Sport

    Advisory body on sports disability to LA recreation departments, education departments, schools and NGBs


    Overcoming the barriers disability
    Overcoming the barriers - Disability people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Terminology

    Differently-abled?

    Those with a disability

    NGB

    Sport England

    Disability Knowledge

    Type (physical mental), degree

    Equity targets

    Sport provision

    Integrated

    Separate

    Adapted

    NC – equal opportunities

    Technological research

    The law

    Disability politics, activists

    Disabled Sports Associations - BDSA

    Media & broad-casting guidelines

    Access & employment law

    Local Authorities

    Local Govt access policies


    Ethnicity and ethnic differences
    Ethnicity and Ethnic differences people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    • Proportion of ethnic minorities in sport does not reflect proportions within society

    • On average fewer ethnic minorities participate in most sports

    • However in certain sports participation is at a greater level than should be expected

    • Lack of black coaches/ selectors/ managers/ administrators

    • Presumptions made about intellectual ability

    • ‘Privileged white culture’ holding onto advantages

    • Opposition to black involvement/lack necessary experience

    26-50


    Barriers to participation racism
    Barriers to Participation - Racism people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Work

    Performer but Coach, Administrator Opps?

    PE

    Teacher expectations -

    Genetics

    Performance due to genetic superiority?

    Legal right

    Public provision

    Private restriction?

    Opportunity

    Sport

    Social expectations

    Role model

    Stereotype

    Participation

    Range of choice

    Stacking, Centrality

    Barriers

    Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision

    Elite-Performer

    Respected for performance

    But genetic?

    Esteem

    Acceptance < > Respect

    Provision

    Media

    Type of Coverage

    Recognition-Status

    Role models – push pull scenario

    Finance

    Equal reward

    Prize, Pay, Appearance money

    Facilities

    Training Coaching

    Q2Jan04

    Ans


    Sporting equals
    Sporting Equals people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Works to develop policy and practice to promote racial equality in sport

    Sport for Communities Project, providing grants to increase participation in sport by ethnic minorities, migrants and refugees

    Developing a Standard for Local Authority Sport and Leisure Services; “Promoting Racial Equality Through Sport”


    Overcoming the barrier of racism
    Overcoming the barrier of racism people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Individual sport initiatives e.g. “Kick racism out of Football”

    Sport Equity (targets)

    Sport England

    NGB

    NC – equal opportunities

    Research & education

    Ethnic sport organisations

    The law

    Media & broad-casting guidelines

    Local Authorities

    Anti-discrimination legislation

    Local Govt anti-discrimination policies


    Barriers for women
    Barriers for women people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    • History - traditional attitudes of sport’s ‘manliness’, male preserve

    • More sports for males/some ban women/unfriendly

    • More role models - predominantly male coaches

    • Discrimination against women - adverse publicity

    • Some NGBs slow to mix

    • Lack of transport/financial support/child care/time/partner support

    • Lack of promotional materials

    • Poor timing of activities

    • Racism - ethnic minorities may face cultural barriers

    • Disabled women may face further barriers

    27-51


    Women s own attitudes
    Women’s own attitudes people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    • Lack of self-confidence

    • Lack of motivation

    • ‘Myth’ of developing masculinity

    • Alleged unsuitability to competitive sport

    • Lack of positive self-image

    • Many women prefer group activities, many female activities are individual

    27-51


    Media coverage and stereotyping
    Media coverage and stereotyping people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    • Less coverage than males, sport promotion male-dominated

    • Sexist comments common

    • Women presented as physically inferior, weaker than men

    • Women’s sport presented as less interesting

    • Women porttrayed as passive and non-competitive; men expected to compete and achieve

    • Sports derived from competitive and violent activities - considered masculine

    • Girls PE based on posture and grace - socially acceptable

    27-51


    WSF people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Improve, increase and promote opportunities for women and girls in sport and physical activity

    Campaign for change through raising awareness and influencing policy

    The Foundation’s achievements include:

    Women into Coaching - free training for women in sports coaching and leadership

    Women in Sport Magazine, resource packs and guides for schools and clubs

    Providing women with information about funding


    Barriers to participation sexism
    Barriers to Participation - Sexism people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    PE

    Girl’s games, Different PE activities

    Work

    Performer, Coach, Administrator

    Mothers

    Social expectation

    Time Childcare

    Legal right

    Public provision

    Private restriction

    Stereotype

    Sport

    Male dominion

    Non-feminine

    Opportunity

    Barriers

    Stereotype, Opportunity, Esteem, Provision

    Participation

    Range of choice

    Custom – female appropriate

    Elite-Performer

    Sexuality

    Respected for performance/

    appearance?

    Esteem

    Acceptance < > Respect

    Provision

    Equal reward

    Prize, Pay, Appearance money

    Finance

    Media

    Amount coverage

    Type of Coverage

    Recognition-Status

    Media, society, role models

    Facilities

    Training Coaching


    Traditional class discrimination in sport
    Traditional class discrimination in sport people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    • Sport was used by upper classes as a form of social control

    • Sports divided on a class basis, excluding working classes from aristocratic sports

    • Upper classes with the necessary time and money for sporting pursuits

    • Control of physical resources by upper classes who also limited level of involvement of working classes

    25-49


    Barriers to participation class
    Barriers to Participation - Class people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Upper Class

    Leisure as right

    Gifted amateur

    Had time & money

    Exclusive

    Working Class

    Family poverty

    Earn the right to leisure

    Excluded

    Wealth differential

    Opportunities to participate restricted by:

    Cost of equipment, travel, membership

    Social Darwinism

    Born to rule

    Fixed place within society

    Middle Class

    Salaried

    Control over time

    Had money

    Control of leisure/sport

    Exclusive rules

    Socio-Economic

    Historical

    Ideological

    Social Exclusivity

    Restrictive membership policies

    Private clubs;

    Reluctance to cross social barriers

    Egalitarian

    Equal work – equal pay

    Equality of opportunity

    Meritocracy


    Overcoming the socio economic barrier
    Overcoming the socio-economic barrier people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Whole Sport Plans

    Sport Equity Targets

    Discrimination issues

    Sport England

    NGB

    Local Authorities

    Resource issues

    Public provision

    Sport Aid

    CCT

    Best Value

    Government – urban & social regeneration


    Barriers to participation exam focus1
    Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus people in England. Work closely with the five National Disability Sports Organisations

    Barrier to Participation

    What

    Easy marks

    Action

    Hard marks

    Why

    Harder marks

    June05Q2

    Ans


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