Chapter 11 section 3
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Chapter 11 Section 3. Victory in Europe and the Pacific. Review. Executive Order 8802 Bracero program Executive Order 9066 Government manages the economy. So………. How did the Allies defeat the Axis Powers?. People and Terms. People and Terms. Definitions. Harry S. Truman

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Chapter 11 Section 3

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Chapter 11 section 3

Chapter 11 Section 3

Victory in Europe and the Pacific


Review

Review

Executive Order 8802

Bracero program

Executive Order 9066

Government manages the economy


Chapter 11 section 3

So……….

How did the Allies defeat the Axis Powers?


People and terms

People and Terms

People and Terms

Definitions

  • Harry S. Truman

  • Albert Einstein

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

  • Manhattan Project

  • Took over President after FDR died

  • World famous scientist who wrote the letter to FDR about he importance of a atomic bomb program

  • Scientist who ran the scientific aspect of the Manhattan Project

  • Program to develop an atomic bomb


People and terms1

People and Terms

People and Terms

Definitions

  • D-Day

  • Battle of the Bulge

  • Island hopping

  • Kamikaze

  • Invasion of Normandy France

  • German counter attack that attempted to drive a wedge between American and British forces

  • American strategy in pacific to capture Japanese islands

  • Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed their planes into American ships


Planning germany s defeat

Planning Germany’s Defeat

  • November 1943

    • Teheran, Iran

  • The Big Three (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin)meet

    • Stalin

      • Wants U.S. and Britain to attack Germany from the west

    • Churchill

      • Does not want to do so because:

        • Repeat the slaughter of British troops in WWI on Western front

        • U-Boat presence was to great in English Channel


Planning germany s defeat1

Planning Germany’s Defeat

  • Declaration of the Three Powers

    • “We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of operations to be undertaken from the east, west, and south. The common understanding which we have here guarantees that victory will be ours… No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, the U-Boats by sea, and their war planes from the air.”

      • December 1, 1943


Eisenhower plans the invasion

Eisenhower Plans the Invasion

  • Operation Overlord

    • When

      • June 6, 1944

    • Where

      • Normandy France

    • How

      • 21 American divisions and 26 British, Canadian, and Polish divisions

        • 4,4400 plus ships and landing craft

      • 5 beaches

        • Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword


Heroes storm the beaches

Heroes Storm the Beaches

  • “D-Day”

    • Objective was to gain a toehold in France

  • 11,000 planes first attacked Nazi communication and transport networks as well as defenses on the beaches

  • 6:30 AM

    • First troops crossed the English Channel

    • 4 beaches faced light resistance

    • Omaha beach

      • American troops faced tough resistance from Nazi defenses

  • Result

    • Achieved objective

    • Took important step to reaching Berlin


Liberation of europe

Liberation of Europe

  • Germany faced a war on two fronts

    • East

      • Soviet Union

        • Gained control of Latvia Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary

    • West

      • American and British

        • Had established themselves in Northern France

        • Made there way towards Berlin


Allies advance

Allies Advance

  • August 1944

    • Allies Liberate Paris

  • July 20, 1944

    • Plot to overthrow Hitler

      • Who

        • Rommel and others

      • What happened

        • An officer planted a bomb at Hitler’s Headquarters

        • Bomb killed and/or wounded 20 but Hitler survived


Germany counterattacks

Germany Counterattacks

  • December 1944

    • Hitler’s plan

      • English speaking German soldiers would cut telephone and change road signs to confuse the Allied forces

      • German tanks would then secure communication and transports stations

      • Planned Result

        • Create a wedge between American and British Forces

      • Led to the Battle of the Bulge


Battle of the bulge

Battle of the Bulge

  • December 1944

  • Germans surprise attacked American lines

  • Bastogne Belgium

    • Conditions

      • Snowy, cloudy skies prevented the Allies from providing air support

    • December 23

      • Skies cleared and Allies were able to bomb key German positions

    • Result

      • Crippled Germans military reserves and demoralized the soldiers


Allies push to victory

Allies Push to Victory

  • April 1945

    • Mussolini tried to flee Switzerland but was captured and executed

  • FDR dies

    • Before the war ended, FDR had died

    • Harry S. Truman became president

  • April 30, 1945

    • Hitler commits suicide

  • May 7, 1945

    • V-E Day

      • Germany Surrenders


Advancing in the pacific

Advancing in the Pacific

  • U.S. Strategy

  • Island hopping

    • Capturing some Japanese-held islands and ignoring others in a steady path toward Japan


Japanese troops fight to the death

Japanese Troops Fight to the Death

  • Rather than surrender many Japanese troops took their own lives

  • Kamikaze

    • Japanese pilots crashed their planes into American ships

      • More than 3,00 Japanese pilots died in kamikaze missions

      • Prevented Allies from taking the Philippines and saved Japanese ships from destruction


American forces near japan

American Forces Near Japan

  • February and March 1945

    • Iwo Jima

      • One of the fiercest battles in the island hopping campaign

      • 36 days of fighting resulted in 23,000 casualties to U.S. Marines

  • April 1945

    • Okinawa

      • Important because the island was only 340 miles from Japanese mainland

      • 500,000 troops and 1,213 warships involved in the battle

      • U.S. forces took the island but at a cost of 50,000 casualties


The atomic bomb ends the war

The Atomic Bomb Ends the War

  • Albert Einstein

    • World’s most famous scientist at the time

    • Signed a letter that alerted FDR about the need to proceed with atomic development

  • Manhattan Project

    • The program that development of the atomic bomb


Manhattan project

Manhattan Project

  • Two primary leaders

    • General Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer

      • Oppenheimer ran the scientific aspect of the project

  • July 16, 1945

    • Bomb tested

    • “Now I am become Death, the Destroyer of Worlds.”

      • Oppenheimer

  • “The war’s over. One or two of those things and Japan will be Finished.”

    • General Leslie Grove


Truman makes his decision

Truman Makes His Decision

For dropping the bomb

Against dropping the bomb

  • Axis powers had scientists working on the same thing

  • Save American lives

  • An invasion of mainland Japan was estimated to cost 1 million American lives

  • Win the war

  • Ethical issues

  • Killing innocent civilians


Hiroshima and nagasaki

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Hiroshima

Nagasaki

  • August 6, 1945

  • 8:15 AM

    • Bomb dropped and exploded

  • Within 2 minutes 60,000 people were dead or missing

  • August 9, 1945

  • Two events

    • Soviet Union declared war against Japan and invaded Manchuria

    • U.S. dropped the bomb

  • 35, 000 residents killed

  • August 15, 1945

    • V-J (Victory in Japan) Day

  • September 2 1945

    • Japan surrenders


Now in class

Now in Class

Answer the questions as well as fill out the chart attached with this packet


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