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European Union European Regional Development Fund. MP4 Making Places Profitable: Public & Private Open Spaces experiences from open space regeneration in Scotland. Marilyn Higgins, Alicia Montarzino, Marcia Pereira & Harry Smith. Urban Studies Seminar Series. Edinbrugh 30 September 2010.

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Marilyn Higgins, Alicia Montarzino, Marcia Pereira & Harry Smith

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Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

European UnionEuropean Regional Development Fund

MP4Making Places Profitable: Public & Private Open Spaces experiences from open space regeneration in Scotland

Marilyn Higgins, Alicia Montarzino, Marcia Pereira & Harry Smith

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinbrugh 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Structure

  • MP4 project

  • Theoretical basis

  • Analytical framework

  • Case studies in Scotland:

    • Craigmillar

    • Grassmarket

    • Hailes Quarry Park

  • Conclusions

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

MP4 Project

  • “Making Places Profitable – Public and Private open spaces”

  • AIM: to demonstrate how open space improvements offer positive socio-economic benefits, and how the benefits offered to key communities can be maintained in the long run (‘place-keeping’).

    • supported by Interreg IVB North Sea Region European funding

    • four local authorities/public bodies (Emmen, Flemish Land Agency, Gothenburg, Sheffield)

    • one charitable foundation (Lawaetz Foundation DE)

    • four universities (HCU, HWU, UoC, UoS)

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

MP4 Project

  • MP4 Project Objectives

    • Assess existing transnational experiences with place-keeping – literature review & case studies

    • Produce model agreements for sustainable partnerships and develop innovations in place-keeping

    • Implement, promote and test place-keeping modelstransnationally

    • Monitor and evaluate socio-economic impacts

    • Develop place-keeping policies and ‘mainstream’ best practice

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Theoretical Basis

shift from government to governance & from a providing state to a enabling estate: acknowledgement of wider range of stakeholders in urban management

new institutionalism: importance of understanding mental models in order to understand organisational arrangements

this helps see urban development as a socio-spatial process rather than simple implementation of a “product”

open space: growing body of research into qualities, perception & impact on well being, but less on long-term management & maintenance

our approach: to understand wider stakeholder involvement processes in long-term management of public space based on institutionalist approaches - using case studies in Scotland as examples.

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Analytical Framework

  • type of urban public space

  • stakeholders involved in “place-making” & “place-keeping”

  • resources available to stakeholders and their deployment

  • ideas & mental models related to urban public space & stakeholders

  • process of physical, organisational & mental “requalification”

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Istanbul 14 October 2009


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

UK Context

  • 19th Century: private sector provided public space as part of housing & municipalities provided parks & green spaces

  • 20th Century: public sector predominant provider of public space - public-private partnership regeneration in latter part of the century

  • firmly established mental model of local authority having responsibility for “place-keeping”

  • recent attempts to draw in private sector participation in “place-keeping”

  • strong civil society & mental model of voluntary participation, expressed in trusts & “friends of “ societies

  • current experimentation with new models of private sector & civil society’s relationship with public space.

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Istanbul 14 October 2009


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Craigmillar

Location: Mostly residential suburban area – mainly social rented housing – South-eastern side of Edinburgh

History: Decline & regeneration

Partnerships:

URC model & PARC

CEC decentralisation policy – East Neighbourhood Team

Local communities organisation – The Neigbourhood Alliance

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Istanbul 14 October 2009


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Craigmillar

Place-Keeping

Design-stage consideration

PARC strategy: capture income from private development to contribute to funding of public and amenity projects & community involvement

Still conventional, but new initiatives are being explored mainly due to community involvement.

Community Trust

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Craigmillar

Evaluation: formal & informal

Scottish Government commissioned study of URCs

Neighbourhood Alliance – informal monitoring

Awards for the quality of development, policies & processes.

Transferable aspects

Policies – decentralisation

URC model

Community engagement & support

Flexibility

Sensitiveness to socio-political context

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Istanbul 14 October 2009


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Grassmarket

Context

  • In the Old Town of Edinburgh, valley to the South of Edinburgh Castle.

  • Simple paved area with trees and benches, surrounded by a lively mixture of uses, including housing, shops, pubs, restaurants and hotels.

  • 2007/08: £5 million improvement project

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Grassmarket

Partnership

Funding: local economic development agency & Government’s Cities Growth fund allocation to the local council.

Consultative stakeholder group

Community engagement events

Place-Keeping

From design stage

Management & maintenance: Grassmarket Forum & Council officers.

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Grassmarket

Evaluation

Contentious: good for local business, unhappy residents.

Baseline study carried out & definition of evaluation indicators for later comparison.

Transferable Lessons

Effective engagement

Clarity about remit & aims of a project – expectations management.

Consultation, participation & compromising

Need for in-built evaluation in place-making & place-keeping

Need for a strong and committed client-team – openness to new ideas.

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Hailes Quarry Park

Context

Location: Large open space in the south west of Edinburgh -15ha - surrounded by low-income residential areas.

History:

Old quarry &

previous use as landfill

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Hailes Quarry Park

Partnerships

Involvement of public, private and voluntary sectors

Greenspace Scotland (GS) & Strategic Greenspace Partnerships (SGPs) + Project for Public Spaces (PPS)

The Edinburgh & Lothians Greenspace Trust

The Scottish Executive + Sustrans + WREN + local associations

Community engagement

Place-Keeping

Implicit place-keeping: five-year plan +10 years partial maintenance agreement

Building-up community involvement & ownership

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Hailes Quarry Park

Transferable Lessons

Multiple-inter sectorial partnerships

Attitudes (problem when prevalent at wider level)

Scale (small)

Flexibility (tailored interventions with rapid response)

Evaluation

No formal evaluation

Events used as means to steer apathetic community towards space ownership

Small scale infrastructure investments to increase use by pedestrians, cyclists, women & older people.

Steering Group

Aims & expectations – displacement (who does what)

Urban Studies Seminar Series

Edinburgh, 30 September 2010


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Conclusions

  • wide range of types of stakeholder and forms of organisation, with shift from government to governance

  • shift from state-financing of open space regeneration and management to diversification of funding sources

  • in all cases, central role of more direct relationship between stakeholders and open space through some form of responsibility

  • potential political & social issues: re-definition of the role of the state & of other stakeholders, ownership of open space, social responsibility.

  • scope to learn more through wider and more in-depth research on impact of these practices on the wider community, via a longitudinal study.

Urban Studies Seminar Series


Marilyn higgins alicia montarzino marcia pereira harry smith

Thank You

MP4 HWU Team:

Dr Harry Smith [email protected] - Principal Investigator

Dr Marcia Pereira [email protected] - Research Associate

Prof Glen Bramley

Dr Caroline Brown

Dr Scott Fernie

Marilyn Higgins

Dr Alicia Montarzino

Urban Studies Seminar Series


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