Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale
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Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale. Greg Hancock 1 , Jetse Kalma 1 , Jeff McDonnell 2 , Cristina Martinez 1 , Barry Jacobs 1 , Tony Wells 1 1. The University of Newcastle 2. Oregon State University. Background.

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Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Greg Hancock1, Jetse Kalma1, Jeff McDonnell2, Cristina Martinez1, Barry Jacobs1, Tony Wells1

1. The University of Newcastle

2. Oregon State University


Background
Background

  • Terrestrial carbon fluxes account for more than half of the carbon transferred between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface

  • Terrestrial ecosystems represent a critical element of the carbon interchange system

  • A lack of understanding of the carbon dynamics at the hillslope, catchment and regional scales represents a large source of uncertainty



What s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics
What’s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics? point to paddock scale

  • Textural properties?

  • Soil moisture, soil temperature?

  • Vegetation?

  • Hillslope/catchment hydrology/geomorphology?


Problem of scale
Problem of scale point to paddock scale

At what scale do we need to examine the hillslope and catchmentto quantify and model soil carbon?

  • DEM grid size of 5m, 10m, ……….250m???

  • Vegetation, soil moisture, soil temperature quantification at 5m DEM…. ???????


What s been done
What’s been done? point to paddock scale

  • Studies concentrated on forested tropical and subtropical regions or in cool temperate landscapes with anthropogenic influence

  • Australia has received much less attention

  • No reported attempt to examine the spatial and temporal scaling properties or to scale up data to larger catchments


Case study – Tin Camp Creek point to paddock scale

Transect 2

Transect 1

Extensive catchment analysis

-rainfall/runoff plots

-hydrology and erosion model calibration

-DEM scale analysis

-soil erosion assessment by 137Cs

-soil carbon assessment

  • Location- Arnhem Land, NT

  • - monsoonal tropics

  • - no European disturbance

  • geologically similar to the ERA

  • Ranger uranium mine


Results position on hillslope and soil carbon
Results- point to paddock scaleposition on hillslope and soil carbon

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship with soil carbon and hillslope position!


Results soil carbon and soil erosion
Results- point to paddock scalesoil carbon and soil erosion

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship between soil carbon and soil erosion!


Results - hillslope profile point to paddock scale

and soil texture

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship with hillslope position and soil texture!


Results - soil carbon with point to paddock scale

soil textural properties

Transect 1

Transect 2

Weak relationship with soil carbon and texture!


What s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics1
What’s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics? point to paddock scale

  • Textural properties?

  • Soil moisture, soil temperature?

  • Vegetation?

  • Hillslope/catchment hydrology/geomorphology?

  • What scale?



The Goulburn catchment scale

  • Use existing equipment (Scaling and Assimilation of Soil Moisture and Streamflow-SASMAS) within the 7000 km2 Goulburn catchment

  • Mixed grazing and cropping region located 200 km west of Newcastle

  • 26 monitoring sites (soil

  • moisture, temp)

  • stream gauges

  • 4 climate stations



Project aim
Project aim scale

  • The identification of spatial and temporal patterns within carbon dynamics at the hillslope, subcatchment and catchment scales

  • Model and predict the distribution (temporal and spatial) of catchment soil carbon


Project requirements
Project requirements scale

  • Existing network (SASMAS) of ground based weather, soil moisture and temperature and stream gauges

  • Complemented with additional stream gauges to quantify Dissolved Organic Carbon, as well as ground based vegetation and soil carbon quantification at each of the field sites

  • To be done at three scales

    • Hillslope

    • Small catchment (Stanley), second sandstone catchment

    • Goulburn catchment


Remote sensing
Remote sensing scale

  • Never enough ground based data

  • Can we use remote sensing to extrapolate ground based data (veg., soil moisture and temp.) over the wider region?


Catchment scale
Catchment scale scale

Digital elevation models provide a framework for catchment examination

What grid scale do we use?

-25m (commercial)

-250m (free)

-3-arc second (90m) NASA (free)


25m scale

50m

100m

250m

90m


Digital elevation model creation
Digital elevation model creation scale

  • Do we need to create our own DEM using differential GPS (time consuming) or LIDAR?

  • LIDAR offers great potential

  • Eco-Dimona -Scanning lidar altimeter

    • -0.1m vertical, 1m horizontal

  • We believe that a 10m DEM the minimum


Remote sensing of vegetation soil temperature and moisture
Remote sensing of vegetation, soil temperature and moisture scale

Remote sensing used to extrapolate both soil moisture and biomass levels observed at the subcatchment and catchment scales to the larger region

  • NDVI (biomass) data from LANDSAT 5 or 7,

  • Soil moisture (interpreted) from GMS and NOAA-AVHRR

  • Eco-Dimona aircraft

    - Thermal infrared imager (1m resolution at 500ft)

    - Tri-spectral scanner (NDVI) (1m resolution at 500ft)

    - PLMR soil moisture

Large scale

Small scale


Calibration and validation
Calibration and validation scale

  • Calibration of NVDI data by comparing the remotely sensed data with on-the-ground sampling of the surface vegetation cover

  • Validation of soil moisture and soil temperature obtained with microwave and infrared sensors mounted on aircraft and satellite platforms over a range of scales



What we can provide from ground based measurement
What we can provide from ground based measurement NAFE

Soil carbon, biomass, temperature, moisture, textural data

- 26 SASMAS sites (7000 km2 Goulburn)

- 2 small catchments (750 ha Stanley + one other)

- hillslope (Stanley + one other)

Soil erosion/sediment transport data for 2 small catchments (hillslope and stream)

Water quality data for 2 small catchments


Nafe requirements
NAFE requirements NAFE

High resolution data (Eco-Dimona aircraft)

-Thermal infrared imager

-Tri-spectral scanner (NDVI)

-PLMR (soil moisture)

for the Stanley (basalt) catchment and for a second (yet to determined) sandstone catchment within the study region


Conclusion
Conclusion NAFE

  • The calibration of remotely sensed data on the smaller subcatchment together with the sparse data collected at SASMAS monitoring site allows us to make predictions about the impact of biomass changes on carbon dynamics

  • Remotely sensed vegetation data can be coupled with SASMAS soil moisture, soil temperature, rainfall, climate and streamflow data in combination with NDVI/biomass data and the DEM to model hillslope/catchment carbon dynamics


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