Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale
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Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale. Greg Hancock 1 , Jetse Kalma 1 , Jeff McDonnell 2 , Cristina Martinez 1 , Barry Jacobs 1 , Tony Wells 1 1. The University of Newcastle 2. Oregon State University. Background.

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Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

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Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Greg Hancock1, Jetse Kalma1, Jeff McDonnell2, Cristina Martinez1, Barry Jacobs1, Tony Wells1

1. The University of Newcastle

2. Oregon State University


Background

Background

  • Terrestrial carbon fluxes account for more than half of the carbon transferred between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface

  • Terrestrial ecosystems represent a critical element of the carbon interchange system

  • A lack of understanding of the carbon dynamics at the hillslope, catchment and regional scales represents a large source of uncertainty


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

  • Agricultural scientists understand carbon dynamics at the point to paddock scale

  • Speculative about what happens on the hillslope to catchment scale

  • We know little about how soils and land management affect carbon sequestration at the hillslope and catchment scale


What s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics

What’s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics?

  • Textural properties?

  • Soil moisture, soil temperature?

  • Vegetation?

  • Hillslope/catchment hydrology/geomorphology?


Problem of scale

Problem of scale

At what scale do we need to examine the hillslope and catchmentto quantify and model soil carbon?

  • DEM grid size of 5m, 10m, ……….250m???

  • Vegetation, soil moisture, soil temperature quantification at 5m DEM…. ???????


What s been done

What’s been done?

  • Studies concentrated on forested tropical and subtropical regions or in cool temperate landscapes with anthropogenic influence

  • Australia has received much less attention

  • No reported attempt to examine the spatial and temporal scaling properties or to scale up data to larger catchments


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Case study – Tin Camp Creek

Transect 2

Transect 1

Extensive catchment analysis

-rainfall/runoff plots

-hydrology and erosion model calibration

-DEM scale analysis

-soil erosion assessment by 137Cs

-soil carbon assessment

  • Location- Arnhem Land, NT

  • - monsoonal tropics

  • - no European disturbance

  • geologically similar to the ERA

  • Ranger uranium mine


Results position on hillslope and soil carbon

Results- position on hillslope and soil carbon

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship with soil carbon and hillslope position!


Results soil carbon and soil erosion

Results- soil carbon and soil erosion

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship between soil carbon and soil erosion!


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Results - hillslope profile

and soil texture

Transect 1

Transect 2

No relationship with hillslope position and soil texture!


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

Results - soil carbon with

soil textural properties

Transect 1

Transect 2

Weak relationship with soil carbon and texture!


What s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics1

What’s driving catchment soil carbon dynamics?

  • Textural properties?

  • Soil moisture, soil temperature?

  • Vegetation?

  • Hillslope/catchment hydrology/geomorphology?

  • What scale?


Project carbon dynamics on the hillslope and catchment scale

Project: Carbon dynamics on the hillslope and catchment scale


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

The Goulburn catchment

  • Use existing equipment (Scaling and Assimilation of Soil Moisture and Streamflow-SASMAS) within the 7000 km2 Goulburn catchment

  • Mixed grazing and cropping region located 200 km west of Newcastle

  • 26 monitoring sites (soil

  • moisture, temp)

  • stream gauges

  • 4 climate stations


Location of instrumentation

Location of Instrumentation


Project aim

Project aim

  • The identification of spatial and temporal patterns within carbon dynamics at the hillslope, subcatchment and catchment scales

  • Model and predict the distribution (temporal and spatial) of catchment soil carbon


Project requirements

Project requirements

  • Existing network (SASMAS) of ground based weather, soil moisture and temperature and stream gauges

  • Complemented with additional stream gauges to quantify Dissolved Organic Carbon, as well as ground based vegetation and soil carbon quantification at each of the field sites

  • To be done at three scales

    • Hillslope

    • Small catchment (Stanley), second sandstone catchment

    • Goulburn catchment


Remote sensing

Remote sensing

  • Never enough ground based data

  • Can we use remote sensing to extrapolate ground based data (veg., soil moisture and temp.) over the wider region?


Catchment scale

Catchment scale

Digital elevation models provide a framework for catchment examination

What grid scale do we use?

-25m (commercial)

-250m (free)

-3-arc second (90m) NASA (free)


Carbon dynamics at the hillslope and catchment scale

25m

50m

100m

250m

90m


Digital elevation model creation

Digital elevation model creation

  • Do we need to create our own DEM using differential GPS (time consuming) or LIDAR?

  • LIDAR offers great potential

  • Eco-Dimona-Scanning lidar altimeter

    • -0.1m vertical, 1m horizontal

  • We believe that a 10m DEM the minimum


Remote sensing of vegetation soil temperature and moisture

Remote sensing of vegetation, soil temperature and moisture

Remote sensing used to extrapolate both soil moisture and biomass levels observed at the subcatchment and catchment scales to the larger region

  • NDVI (biomass) data from LANDSAT 5 or 7,

  • Soil moisture (interpreted) from GMS and NOAA-AVHRR

  • Eco-Dimona aircraft

    -Thermal infrared imager (1m resolution at 500ft)

    - Tri-spectral scanner (NDVI) (1m resolution at 500ft)

    - PLMR soil moisture

Large scale

Small scale


Calibration and validation

Calibration and validation

  • Calibration of NVDI data by comparing the remotely sensed data with on-the-ground sampling of the surface vegetation cover

  • Validation of soil moisture and soil temperature obtained with microwave and infrared sensors mounted on aircraft and satellite platforms over a range of scales


What we can provide to the nafe and what we need from the nafe

What we can provide to the NAFE and what we need from the NAFE


What we can provide from ground based measurement

What we can provide from ground based measurement

Soil carbon, biomass, temperature, moisture, textural data

- 26 SASMAS sites (7000 km2 Goulburn)

- 2 small catchments (750 ha Stanley + one other)

- hillslope (Stanley + one other)

Soil erosion/sediment transport data for 2 small catchments (hillslope and stream)

Water quality data for 2 small catchments


Nafe requirements

NAFE requirements

High resolution data (Eco-Dimona aircraft)

-Thermal infrared imager

-Tri-spectral scanner (NDVI)

-PLMR (soil moisture)

for the Stanley (basalt) catchment and for a second (yet to determined) sandstone catchment within the study region


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • The calibration of remotely sensed data on the smaller subcatchment together with the sparse data collected at SASMAS monitoring site allows us to make predictions about the impact of biomass changes on carbon dynamics

  • Remotely sensed vegetation data can be coupled with SASMAS soil moisture, soil temperature, rainfall, climate and streamflow data in combination with NDVI/biomass data and the DEM to model hillslope/catchment carbon dynamics


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