Descriptive methods
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Descriptive Methods. Naturalistic Observation. AKA “field operation” Observing natural or true behaviors High in ecological validity (external validity) Extent to which research can be generalized to real-life situations Two Options Nonparticipant observation Participant observation.

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Descriptive Methods

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Descriptive methods

Descriptive Methods


Naturalistic observation

Naturalistic Observation

  • AKA “field operation”

  • Observing natural or true behaviors

  • High in ecological validity (external validity)

    • Extent to which research can be generalized to real-life situations

  • Two Options

    • Nonparticipant observation

    • Participant observation


Disguised observation

Disguised observation

  • Participants are unaware that the researcher is observing their behavior

  • Unobtrusive

  • Minimizes reactivity

  • Concerned with expectancy effects

    • Desired outcome by experimenters


Laboratory observation

Laboratory Observation

  • Systematic observations

  • Control high internal validity

  • Reactivity and expectancy effects still concern


Data collection

Data Collection

  • Narrative Records-full description

  • Checklists

    • Time

    • Location

    • Measures beh

      • Yes / no

      • Time series


Qualitative research

Qualitative Research

  • Field settings

    • Unstructure

    • No manipulation

  • Case studies

  • Archival Method

  • Interviews

  • Action Research


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