Valvular heart disease
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 18

Valvular Heart Disease PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 110 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Valvular Heart Disease. Valvular Heart Disease. Normal heart valves function to maintain the direction of blood flow through the atria and ventricles to the rest of the body Heart valves operate by passively opening and closing in response to pressure changes in the heart

Download Presentation

Valvular Heart Disease

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Valvular heart disease

Valvular Heart Disease


Valvular heart disease1

Valvular Heart Disease

  • Normal heart valves function to maintain the direction of blood flow through the atria and ventricles to the rest of the body

  • Heart valves operate by passively opening and closing in response to pressure changes in the heart

  • Valvular disease occurs when the valves are compromised and don’t open and close properly


Valvular disease

Valvular Disease

  • Two valvular problems:

    • Stenosis: thickening of the valve tissue  narrowing

    • Insufficiency: valve unable to close completely

  • Valvular heart disorders include:

    • Mitral stenosis, Mitral insufficiency

    • Aortic stenosis, Aortic insufficiency

    • Tricuspid stenosis, Tricuspid insufficiency

    • Pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary insufficiency


Mitral stenosis

Mitral Stenosis

  • Obstructs blood flow from LA to LV

  • Leads to:

    • Pulmonary HTN

    • RV hypertrophy

    • Right sided heart failure

    • Low cardiac output from inadequate filling of LV

  • May be caused by congenital abnormality or Rheumatic Fever


Mitral regurgitation mitral insufficiency

Mitral Regurgitation(Mitral Insufficiency)

  • Abnormality of leaflets, annulus, chordae tendinae, papillary muscles, or LV (hypertrophic CM)

  • Blood from LV flows back into the LA during systole

    • LA dilation and LV hypertrophy

    • Left sided heart failure


Mitral regurgitation mitral insufficiency1

Mitral Regurgitation(Mitral Insufficiency)

  • May be caused by:

    • Rheumatic fever

    • Mitral Valve prolapse

    • MI with ruptured chordaetendinae

    • LV failure

    • Marfan Syndrome


Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral Valve Prolapse

  • Congenital

  • Cusps of Mitral Valve are enlarged, thickened and

  • Cusps of valve  prolapse into LA during systole causing a “click” sound

  • Benign unless MV regurgitation develops


Aortic stenosis

Aortic Stenosis

  • Narrowed valve opening obstructs blood flow from LV to Aorta

  • LV pressure increases to overcome resistance

    • Increases workload

    • Left sided heart failure

    • Poor coronary artery perfusion


Aortic stenosis1

Aortic Stenosis

  • May be caused by:

    • Congenital (Bicuspid AV)

    • Rheumatic Fever

    • Atherosclerosis


Aortic regurgitation aortic insufficiency

Aortic Regurgitation(Aortic Insufficiency)

  • Blood flows back into the LV during diastole

    • Fluid overload in the LV

    • LV dilation and hypertrophy

  • Will eventually lead to Left sided heart failure


Aortic regurgitation aortic insufficiency1

Aortic Regurgitation(Aortic Insufficiency)

  • May be caused by:

    • Rheumatic Fever

    • Syphilis

    • HTN

    • Endocarditis

    • Marfan Syndrome


Pulmonic stenosis

Pulmonic Stenosis

  • Obstructs RV outflow causing RV hypertrophy and Right sided heart failure

  • May be a congenital abnormality or rarely caused by Rheumatic fever


Diagnostic tests

Diagnostic Tests

  • Cardiac Catheterization

  • EKG

  • Echocardiogram

    • Transthoracic and Transesophogeal


Medical treatment of valvular disorder

Medical Treatment of Valvular Disorder

  • Treat heart failure

    • Sodium restriction, diuretics, digoxin

  • Reduce risk factors

  • Repair or replace valve


Surgical treatment of valvular disorders

Surgical Treatment of Valvular Disorders

  • Open Heart Surgery

    • Valve Replacement- mechanical or tissue

    • Commissurotomy- repair (splitting of the fused mitral valve leaflet for treating stenosis

  • Valvuloplasty – surgical reconstruction of deformed cardiac valve

    • Percutaneous

    • Balloon reshapes and opens valve


Nursing interventions

Nursing Interventions

  • Goals:

    • Assist with ADLs

    • Symptomatic relief

    • Promote Comfort

    • VS, I&O, Auscultation lungs/heart; capillary perfusion checks, diet compliance, O2 tx


  • Login