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THE CIVIL WAR. 1861 - 1865. The War Begins. Civil War begins with southerners firing on Ft. Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, S.C. Opinion in the North demanded action to “Save the Union” Other states in the South joined S.C. in seceding from Union

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The civil war


1861 - 1865

The civil war

The War Begins

Civil War begins with southerners firing on Ft. Sumter in the

harbor of Charleston, S.C.

Opinion in the North demanded action to “Save the Union”

Other states in the South joined S.C. in seceding from Union

Virginia split into two states, border states stayed in the Union

but had many southern sympathizers; Maryland,

Tennessee, Kentucky, Delaware

The civil war

Inside Fort Sumter after its surrender

The civil war

Advantages and Disadvantages


Most of the populationMore wealth

Almost all industry and factories2/3rds of all railroads

More food productionno slaves to guard

Almost the entire navy


Fighting in defensive rolesuperior generals

Valuable cotton to sellPossible help from England

Slave labor

The civil war

Early Stages of the War

The South won almost all the battles in the first 2 years of

the war

The first Battle at Bull Run (Manasas) showed war would not

be quick and easy as many expected

Robert E. Lee led outnumbered rebels to victories at

Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness

Union army did best in the West led by U.S. Grant winning at

Shiloh and later Vicksburg

Union navy very effective in blockading the South

The civil war

A steam frigate

The civil war


Slavery continued in border states; slaves captured by Union

forces held as contraband

After narrow victory at Antietam Pres. Lincoln decided to issue

the Emancipation Proclamation.

Proclamation mostly a propaganda success; it helped convince

Britain not to help the Confederacy, and it gave

Union forces a noble cause to fight for

Since war was now about ending slavery AND saving the

Union, many blacks in the North were willing to fight

against the South

The civil war

Emancipation Proclamation

The civil war

The War On the Home Front

Both aides had to use conscription to get soldiers; North

paid bounties for enlisting; draft riots across the

North targeted blacks

Southerners suffered more than northerners because of

shortages, runaway slaves, limited man power

North had an economic boom and war profiteers

Both sides used paper $ and had high inflation

The civil war

Home front - continued

Prison camps on both sides were terrible; the worst by far

was Andersonville in Georgia

Women on both sides took men’s jobs, served as spies (Harriett Tubman), nurses (Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix

Clara Barton

The civil war

Ending the War

New technology in war- railroads, telegraphs, gatling guns,

ironclad warships, submarines, balloons, repeaters

Turning point was Battle of Gettysburg 1863. General Grant

took over all Union forces after the battle and used his

greater numbers to pound Lee and the rebel army

General William T. Sherman made his famous ‘March to the

Sea’ in 1864.

Lincoln was re-elected in 1864;

1865 Lee was forced to surrender; war ended; Lincoln was


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Battle of Hampton Roads between the Monitor and the Merrimac

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Dead Rebel sharpshooter at Devil’s Den, Gettysburg

The civil war

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee

The civil war

William T. Sherman

George B. McClellan

The civil war

‘Stonewall’ Jackson

James Longstreet

The civil war

Richmond, VA 1865

African-American Soldiers

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