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What are Words Worth? Vocabulary Instruction Worth Its Weight in Gold. Presented by Tiffany Frierson Title I Reading Instructional Specialist. Monthlymeetings.wikispaces.com. Why Vocabulary?.

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What are words worth vocabulary instruction worth its weight in gold
What are Words Worth?Vocabulary Instruction Worth Its Weight in Gold

Presented by Tiffany Frierson

Title I Reading Instructional Specialist



Why vocabulary
Why Vocabulary?

Vocabulary knowledge is related to reading comprehension, intelligence, content knowledge, and reasoning.

-Stahl, 1999


How confident do you feel about your vocabulary instruction

5

9

1

How confident do you feel about your vocabulary instruction?

  • On a scale of 1 – 9, how confident are you about your vocabulary instruction?

  • Place a post-it on the scale on the wall– 1 is the lowest & 9 is the highest.

Adapted from Dale, Rasband, Ross, Gardner, & Cunningham, 2004


How do you teach vocabulary?

  • Discuss within your group.

  • Record your responses.

  • Share out.


Essential questions
Essential Questions:

  • Why is vocabulary instruction so important?

  • What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?

  • What strategies do we want students to use during reading?


4 components of an effective vocabulary program
4 Components of an Effective Vocabulary Program

  • Wide or extensive reading to expand word knowledge,

  • Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words,

  • Instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and

  • Word consciousness and word play activities to motivate and enhance learning.

    Michael Graves, 2000


Components of vocabulary instruction
Components of Vocabulary Instruction

The National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that there is no single research-based method for teaching vocabulary. From its analysis, the panel recommended using a variety of direct and indirect methods of vocabulary instruction.


Direct or intentional vocabulary instruction
Direct or Intentional Vocabulary Instruction

  • Explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective. To develop vocabulary intentionally, students should be explicitly taught both specific words and word-learning strategies.

  • -National Reading Panel (2000)


Research based strategies for vocabulary development
Research–based Strategies for Vocabulary Development

  • Wide and Extensive Reading

  • Morphemic Analysis

  • Contextual Analysis

  • Dictionary Use

  • Cognate Analysis (ELL)


Word knowledge is much more than word identification or even definitional knowledge–

“It takes more than definitional knowledge to know a word, and we have to know words in order to identify them in multiple reading and listening contexts and use them in our speaking and writing.”(Allen, 1999)


Finding definitions and writing those words in sentences have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Janet Allen, 1999


Dictionary use
Dictionary Use! have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • When students have been provided dictionary definitions and asked to create sentences or answer brief questions about the words, research has shown:

    • 63 percent of the students’ sentences were judged to be “odd” (Miller & Gildea, 1985)

    • 60 percent of students’ responses were unacceptable (McKeown, 1991; 1993)


When the horse you are riding dies dismount
When the horse you are riding dies, have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. DISMOUNT!

Some dead horses for vocabulary instruction…

  • Do not give students isolated words or weekly spelling words to look up in the dictionary and write sentences. This is a deadly useless activity that is boring, not good instruction, and only teaches student how boring it is to learn new words.

  • Move away from fill in the blank, or matching word definitions in isolation.


Reading aloud
Reading Aloud have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

"The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children."

Becoming a Nation of Readers (1985)


Wide reading
Wide Reading have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Students learn more words than a year than we can teach

  • Best way for students to learn many words in conjunction with learning word parts


Vocabulary instruction
Vocabulary Instruction have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Direct teaching of vocabulary can help improve comprehension when we follow these guidelines(Cooper, 1993):

  • A few critical words are taught.

  • The words are taught in a meaningful context. (including nonlinguistic representations)

  • Students relate the new words to their background knowledge.

  • Students are exposed to the words multiple times.


Planning which words to choose
Planning- Which Words to Choose? have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Fiction

  • Words that are important to the theme

  • Words necessary to understand the story

Nonfiction

  • Words necessary to understand the text (usually in bold or italics)

Words that are common across many contexts (tier 2 words)


Planning instruction routine
Planning- Instruction Routine have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Students need repetition with the words that will be explicitly taught

    • Have a routine for explaining the words

      • Deep understanding of the words

  • Have a routine for practice with the words

    • Engage in activities with the words

    • Encourage students to discuss the words

    • Read the words in context


What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction
What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction? have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Explicit vocabulary instruction
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Vocabulary instruction is embedded within the instructional routine for reading and follows a before, during and after reading format.


Before reading
Before Reading have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Instruction

  • Archer’s Instructional Routine for Vocabulary

  • Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary-Steps 1-3

  • Beck’s Questioning Strategies

Activities

  • Frayer Model

  • Semantic Mapping

  • Word and Concept Sorts


During reading
During Reading have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Instruction

  • Model strategy use

  • Monitor/support student strategy use

  • Providing affirmative and corrective feedback

Activities

  • Vocabulary Tree Map

  • Dictionary


After reading
After Reading have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Instruction

  • Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary-Steps 4-6

  • Beck’s Questioning Strategies

Activities

  • Frayer Model

  • Semantic Mapping

  • Word and Concept Sorts


Before have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.ReadingStrategies


Background knowledge
Background Knowledge have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge is explicit in research.

(Nagy & Herman, 1984; Marzano, 2004; Hart & Risley, 1995)


have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.Our inner-city student might have little background knowledge related to camping trips but a lot related to getting around the city on the subway. Consequently, he would have difficulty learning and integrating new information about camping trips but would find it easy to learn new information about transportation via subway systems”.

(Marzano, 2004)


Marzano s six step process
Marzano’s Six Step Process have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of the new term

  • Step 2- Ask students to restate the description, explanation or example in their own words

  • Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representation of the term

  • Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks

  • Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one another.

  • Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow them to plan with terms


Knowledge rating scale
Knowledge Rating Scale have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Word sorts organizing words into categories
Word Sorts- have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.organizing words into categories

temperature

meteorologist

barometer

cold front

hurricanes

Why is this a good before reading strategy?


Word sorts
Word Sorts have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

temperature

barometer

hurricanes

cold front

meteorologist

  • Provide students with a set of vocabulary word cards (related to a specific concept or topic).

  • Work in groups to sort the words into categories.

  • Encourage students to find more than one category for the vocabulary words.

  • Students then discuss with teacher & peers their rationale for categorizing words.

    Let’s sort!


Concept circles before reading westward movement
Concept Circles Before Reading: have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.Westward Movement

Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles.

hunting

food

trail

terrain

learning

disease

hardship

wagon

Traveling west had many hardships. One of the many hardships were diseases that the people had without medical help. Wagons would need to hold many delicacies. For instance, food you’d need to eat and live on were carried in them. The trails could have bad terrain, or could be all flat. Hunting was important and learning how to hunt for buffalo, elk, deer, and birds was learned while on the trail and served as good food for all.


Concept circles assessment circulatory system
Concept Circles Assessment: have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.Circulatory System

Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles. (Which word does NOT belong? Write why below.)

carbon dioxide

Large intestines

Blood

Heart

Oxygen

Veins

Salivary Glands

Arteries

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Migrate
Migrate have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Sentence from text- Philpe’s family migrates from Virginia to Florida every year to pick oranges.


Schwartz & Raphael, 1985 have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

What is it?

What is it like?

To move regularly from one region to another

moving around

Part of speech

relocating

verb

migrate

traveling

people working for seasonal jobs

birds

Nomads

What are some examples?


Your Turn have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Word Map have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

What is it like?

What is it?

Part of speech

Scaffold

What are some examples?


Frayer model
Frayer have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. Model

Definition

Characteristics

An extreme state of agitation.

Stress, anxiety, tension, hostility,

Tears, physical symptoms

SWIVET

First, last week of school.

Sitting on the porch reading

Bubble bath

Unexpected guests for dinner

Lounging by the pool

Four projects due

Examples

Non-Examples


Frayer model1
Frayer have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. Model

Definition

Characteristics

What is a Noun?

Examples

Non-Examples


Fryer model
Fryer Model have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Visual Representation

Term

sphere

Personal Association

Definition

My ball is the shape of a sphere.

A round 3-D shape

sphere


PRIME SCIENCE & have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

PRIME SOCIAL STUDIES

Which words would you pre-teach?

Which words would you explain while you read?

Your Turn


Frayer model choose a word from the prime text
Frayer have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. Model- Choose a word from the PRIME text

Definition

Characteristics

Examples

Non-Examples


Contextual redefinition
Contextual Redefinition have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of each of the following words. The words included here are found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that some words which look familiar will probably have new meanings in this context.


During Reading Strategies have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Marzano s six step process1
Marzano’s Six Step Process have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of the new term

  • Step 2- Ask students to restate the description, explanation or example in their own words

  • Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representation of the term

  • Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks

  • Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one another.

  • Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow them to plan with terms


During reading scaffolding
During Reading- Scaffolding have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Brief explanation of words not important to concept or theme, but helpful to understanding the text

    • Moccasins- show a picture or provide a good explanation

    • Give synonyms, antonyms and examples

    • Point out word parts that the students are familiar


During reading scaffolding1
During Reading- Scaffolding have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Dictionary

    • How do you use the dictionary?

    • Only helpful when have context to help figure out the meaning

    • May need to revisit after reading to check for understanding


Fryer model during reading
Fryer Model- During Reading have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Visual Representation

Term

sphere

Personal Association

Definition

My ball is the shape of a sphere.

A round 3-D shape

sphere


Contextual redefinition1
Contextual Redefinition have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of each of the following words. The words included here are found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that some words which look familiar will probably have new meanings in this context.


Semantic feature analysis
Semantic Feature Analysis have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Semantic feature analysis1
Semantic Feature Analysis have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


PRIME SCIENCE & have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

PRIME SOCIAL STUDIES

Which words would you explain while you read?

What type of explanation would you provide?

Your Turn


After reading strategies
After Reading Strategies have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.


Marzano s six step process2
Marzano’s Six Step Process have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of the new term

  • Step 2- Ask students to restate the description, explanation or example in their own words

  • Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representation of the term

  • Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks

  • Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one another.

  • Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow them to plan with terms


Interactive notebooks
Interactive Notebooks have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Students keep a log or journal to record what they are learning

  • Teacher provides a concept or word.

  • Students write quickly & spontaneously (free write/quick write) everything they know about the word.

  • Analyze word parts.

  • Draw a graphic representation.

  • Include graphic organizer and foldables used to learn the word.

  • Peer and/or teacher response.


Concept circles
Concept Circles have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Which word does not belong?

Rectangle

Hexagon

Cone

Trapezoid

Why? ___________________________________________________


Concept circles1
Concept Circles have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Which word does not belong?

Cuba

Hawaii

England

Japan

Why? ___________________________________________________


racism have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

stereotyping

Church

bombing

violence

Concept: Civil Rights Movement


Migrant have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

Dust Bowl

Hobo

Hoovervilles

Concept: The Depression


Frayer Model have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.(Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)

Definition

Characteristics

Best or greatest value

Prime

Examples

Non-Examples


Frayer Model have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.(Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)

Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel.

Definition

Characteristics

  • 2 is the only even prime number

  • 0 and 1 are not prime

    • Every whole number can be written as a product of primes

A whole number with exactly two divisors (factors)

Prime

Examples

Non-Examples

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, . . .

1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10. . .


Frayer or fryer model modifications
Frayer have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. or Fryer Model Modifications

  • Many versions that can be used to expand on word knowledge


Frayer or fryer model another version
Frayer have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. or Fryer Model- another version

Verb- sphered, sphering

Term

sphere

To enclose into a sphere

Adjective- spherical

noun

In the shape of a sphere

A round 3-D shape


Beck s questioning strategies
Beck’s Questioning Strategies have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Great sponge activities

  • A way to informally assess student’s knowledge of the words

  • Encourages students to truly understand the meaning of the words


Questions reasons and examples
Questions, Reasons and Examples have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Why might you walk around a dark room cautiously?

  • What is something that you could do to impress your teacher? Why?

  • Which of these things might be extraordinary?


Making choices
Making Choices have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • If any of the things I say might be examples of people clutching something say “Clutching”. If not, don’t say anything.


Making choices1
Making Choices have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • I’ll say some things, if they sound leisurely, say “Leisurely.” If you’d need to be in a hurry say “Hurry.”


Choices
Choices have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • Ask the children to choose between two words

    If you and your friends were watching a funny TV show together and began to laugh a lot, would you sound pounce or raucous?


One context for all of the words
One Context for All of the Words have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.

  • What would an immense plate of spaghetti look like?

  • Why might you feel miserable after eating all that spaghetti?

  • What would it look like to eat spaghetti in a leisurely way?


Concept sort sort before during and after vocabulary strategies
Concept Sort- have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.Sort before, during and after vocabulary strategies


Concept sort sort before during and after vocabulary strategies1
Concept Sort- have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.Sort before, during and after vocabulary strategies


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