TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION IS ONE OF THE FOUR PILLARS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN BOTSWANA These pillars are: -COUNCILS -DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION -LAND BOARD -TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION. ROLE OF TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION DURING THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD -Unlimited and Undefined Powers -Legislator, Executor
1. TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA THE EXPERIENCE OF BOTSWANA
Professor K. C. Sharma
University of Botswana
2. TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION IS ONE OF THE FOUR PILLARS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN BOTSWANA These pillars are: -COUNCILS -DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION -LAND BOARD -TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION
3. ROLE OF TRIBAL ADMINISTRATION DURING THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD -Unlimited and Undefined Powers -Legislator, Executor and Adjudicator - all in one
4. ROLE DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD Minimum Interference from the Colonial Government
Gradual Curtailment of their Powers
Attempt at Codification in 1935
Some Additional Authority Powers Given
Allocation of Some Local Government Functions
5. CHANGED ROLE AFTER INDEPENDENCE Traditional Institution was retained
Powers, Functions, Authority were reduced considerably
Introduction of Elected Local Government
Creation of Land Boards
Complete subordination to the Central Government (Minister as the Boss)
Subordination to the District Commissioner
6. THE GOVT HAS NOT BEEN TOTALLY HOSTILE AND HAS ALSO BEEN SUPPORTIVE
One of the Four Pillars of Local Govt.
Creation of House of Chiefs
Revision of Conditions of Service
Increased Powers for Customary Courts
Consultation in Planning Process
Presidential (Venson) Commission (2001) recommended “more funds, competent human resource and facilities” for further strengthening
7. AUTHORITY OF CHIEFS Authority partly from tradition but largely from various Acts
Office is Hereditary but rule with the consent of the tribe
Chiefs are Civil servants and are subordinated to the Minister
Hierarchy of Chiefs
Non-Aligned to Party Politics
8. ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF CHIEFS Administration of Justice in Customary Courts
KGOTLA as a forum for consultation and participation in development planning
NTLO YA DIKHOSI (House of Chiefs)
Maintaining the best customs and traditions of the tribe, arranging tribal ceremonies
9. RELATIONS OF CHIEFS WITH COUNCILS
10. CONCLUSION STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF CHIEFS
The role of Chiefs in district development planning needs to be strengthened.
Traditional Leaders continue to command respect among their communities in the rural areas.
They could use this respect for educating, guiding, informing, and advising the people in their areas on matters concerning tribal welfare and development
KGOTLA could continue to serve as forum for consultation, communication and participation and could be more effective
Traditional leaders could be instrumental in initiating social change by striking a healthy balance between tradition and modernity
11. Continued Tribal Administration could play a significant role in the activities of organizations such as DDCs, VDCs
They could lend support to the activities of CBOs and NGOs like VDCs and support their self-help activities
They could play a significant role in the fight against HIV/AIDS
There is a need to give increased attention to developing their capacities – through information, education, training, resources, support of political leadership
12. Continued Mutual respect, cooperation, understanding and team spirit needed between the traditional and modern democratic structures.
Challenges arising as a result of modern (western) education and urbanization need to be faced by enhancing capacities.
Training of Customary Courts chairmen and Clerks, Paramount Chiefs to Village Headmen, Chairmen of Kgotla, members of House of Chiefs, needed
13. COTINUED Traditional Structures and Leaders need to be integrated and brought in to the fold of modern democratic structures and not isolated and pushed aside.
They need to work together for bringing the government and administration closer to the people and enhancing good governance.