Integrated Pest Management

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Integrated Pest Management

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1. Integrated Pest Management Chapter 5 Lesson 5.2

2. PA Academic Standards for Environment & Ecology Standard 4.5.10.B Analyze health benefits and risks associated with integrated pest management. Identify the health risks associated with chemicals used in common pesticides. Assess various levels of control within different integrated pest management practices including increased immunity to pesticides, food safety, sterilization, nutrient management and weed control.

3. Learning Objectives Students will identify the health risks associated with chemicals used in common pesticides. Students will identify the health benefits of the use of integrated pest management.

4. IPM in Practice The Six Steps of IPM Properly identify pest damage and responsible pests. Learn pest and host life cycles and biology. Monitor or sample the environment for pest populations. Establish action threshold (economic, health, and aesthetic). Choose an appropriate combination of management tactics. Evaluate and record results.

5. The Six Steps of IPM Step 1 Properly identify pest damage and responsible pests. 10 million insect species worldwide Only 3,500 species considered key pests

6. The Six Steps of IPM Step 2 Learn pest and host lifecycles and biology. Insects go through several stages in their lifecycle, and may be more vulnerable in some stages than others.

7. The Six Steps of IPM Step 3 Monitor or sample the environment for pest populations. After the pest has been correctly identified, monitoring must be started before the pest becomes a problem. Can you actually see the pest or do you just see the damage? (Example. Termites) Where do you find the pests? Is the pest population increasing, decreasing, or remaining relatively the same?

8. The Six Steps of IPM Step 4 Establish action threshold. Economic, health, or aesthetic How much can be tolerated? How much crop loss in a field is enough to warrant action? How many dandelions can you tolerate seeing in your yard?

9. The Six Steps of IPM Step 5 Choose an appropriate combination of management tactics. Cultural Methods Physical Methods Genetic Methods Biological Methods Chemical Methods Regulatory Control

10. The Six Steps of IPM Step 6 Evaluate and record results. Did the steps you took effectively control the population? Was this method safe enough? Where there any expected side effects? What is the next step?

11. Multiple Methods… Why use multiple methods? Avoid outbreaks Keep pest populations off balance Avoid the development of resistance Use pesticides only as a last resort!!!

12. IPM Tactics Use multiple methods when possible. Use pesticides sparingly. Evaluate all risks and benefits before using an IPM tactic on a pest population.

13. Cultural Methods Suppress pest problems by minimizing the conditions they need for life (water, shelter, food).

14. Multicropping Definition: practice of growing many crops together in the same field

15. Physical Methods Prevent pest access to the host or area, and if the pest is already present, remove them by some means.

16. Genetic Methods Uses classic plant breeding to create pest-resistant plant varieties Example: Bt corn Counteracts the tolerance developed by pest species and allows host to develop a natural defense

17. Host Plant Resistance Definition: natural defense mechanisms of a plant, including physical adaptations, natural chemical resistance, and a tolerance to pest damage and defoliation, that ward off pests

18. Parasitoid Definition: insect that develops on or within an insect host, ultimately killing the host

19. Predators Definition: natural enemy that feeds on an insect or pest

20. Feeding Strategies Two major types of feeding strategies commonly used by predators and foragers Specialists Organisms that have a narrow range in their diet Example: Koala bear Generalists Organisms that have a wide range in their diet Example: Humans

21. Pathogens Definition: a disease-causing organism that infects insects, plants, humans, and other animals

22. Weed feeder Definition: arthropod (such as an insect), other animal, or pathogen that feeds on weed pests

23. Chemical Methods Pesticides are classified according to how they are used. Differ in their persistence, toxicity, and range of action.

24. A ‘Mixed Blessing’ for Synthetic Pesticides Why? Prevented deaths of millions from insect-transmitted diseases. Increased food supplies. Lowered food costs by preventing crops loss. Birth defects from exposure to pesticides. Pesticides are persistent and remain in the environment for long periods of time. May kill beneficial organisms as well as target species.

25. Chemical Methods Conventional Household Pesticides Pesticides are common items around the house. Control pest populations in homes. Important to remember, these are mainly synthetic pesticides!

26. Organophosphates Kill pests by disrupting the function of insect nervous systems and brains. Early childhood exposure may disrupt neurological development. EPA has restricted the use of this class of pesticides to areas without small children.

27. Chemical Methods Conventional Agricultural Pesticides Commonly deter pests from feeding. Prevent crops loss, therefore keeping yields high, and cost low. Generally do not breakdown readily and disappear. Remains as residues on fruits and vegetables taken to market. Health concerns for even low level exposure of farmers.

28. Natural Pesticides Definition: pesticide that is made of natural (not synthesized) ingredients such as minerals mined from the earth (kaolin clay, diatomaceous earth), bacterial extracts, or plant extracts

29. Biorational pesticides Definition: naturally occurring compound or chemical such as a toxin or growth regulator derived from a living organism

30. Microbial Pesticides Naturally occurring bacterium used to produce toxins that attack pests intestinal tracks. Example: Bt, like the gypsy moth control agent from last week.

31. Insecticidal Soap Made of salts from fatty acids, the principal components of fats and oils in plants and animals. Harmless to humans, mammals, and bees. Work best of soft-bodied organisms. New popularity in an environmentally friendly world.

32. Botanical Insecticides Made from living plants. Example: Pyrethrum, a flower extract which is deadly to many insects but harmless to mammals.

33. Water Spray High-pressured water used to remove pests. Spray can remove many common insects. Inexpensive, harmless.

34. Regulatory Control Government Agencies U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) U.S. Department of Homeland Security

35. What is the primary goal of IPM? Reduce pests to acceptable levels rather than eradicate them. Less use of pesticides means fewer negative impacts that are associated with chemical pesticide use.

36. Benefits of IPM Safer for people and the environment. Only uses pesticides when other methods of pest control have failed, at the smallest effective dose.

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