TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182
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TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182. Barriers Against Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water. TOXIC. DVGW-Technology Center Water (TZW) Karlsruhe, Dresden branch. TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182. Consortium of TOXIC. * member of EWRI (European Water Research Institutes). TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182. Content. Introduction

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Barriers Against Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water

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Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Barriers Against Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water

TOXIC

DVGW-Technology Center Water (TZW) Karlsruhe, Dresden branch


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Consortium of TOXIC

* member of EWRI (European Water Research Institutes)


Content

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Content

  • Introduction

  • Results of work packages

  • Published results

  • Case studies


Guide lines for drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Guide lines for drinking water

  • WHO: 1.0 µg/L MCYST-LR

  • Australia: 1.3 µg/L MCYST-LR

    Cylindrospermopsin (in discussion)

    Anatoxin-a (in discussion)

    Saxitoxin (in discussion)

  • Germany: 0.1 µg/L each single toxic compound

  • …..


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Figure 2.2:Strukture of Microcystins


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Figure 2.3:Strukture of Anatoxin-a, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Structure of TOXIC


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Detailed Structure of TOXIC


Work segments

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Work-segments

  • Production of standard materials

  • Design of evaluated analytical procedures

  • Lab scale experiments

  • Pilot scale experiments

  • Full scale monitoring


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 1 - Co-ordination and Project Management

Participants:TZW

  • Protocols

  • Reports

  • Public presentations


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 2 - Raw Water Quality

Participants:UDU, TZW, AAU, UAL, ULO

  • Data base of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in European waterbodies

  • Establishment of an Internet-Based Platform on cyanobacteria and-toxins in European waterbodies (cyanobacteria-platform.com)

  • List of suitable methods for early-warning of cyanobacterial bloom


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 3 - Analysis

Participants: AAU, UDU, ULO

  • Supply of pure cyanotoxin standards

  • Know-how transfer andinter-calibrationexercises

  • Provision of Standard OperationalPrecedures(SOPs) for cyanotoxin analysis (PPIA, ELISA, HPLC/UV, MS)


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 4 - Conventional Treatment

Participants:TZW, UDU, DHI, UEX, UAL, ULO

  • Test of different treatment trains

  • Cyanotoxin biodegradability and degradation kinetics (aerobic and anaerobic)

  • Risk assessment for treatment trains (intra- and extracellular toxins)


Toxin release pilot plant studies

Toxin release - pilot plant studies


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 5 - Polishing Treatment: activated carbon

  • The application of activated carbon (PAC !!!) is one of the most efficient measure for dissolved toxin removal


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

The efficiency of activated carbon

dichloroethene

trichloroethene

atrazine

MCYST-LR

Activated carbon in mg/L


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 5+6 - Polishing and Final Treatment:

oxidation and disinfection

  • Kinetic data base for oxidation of cyanotoxins by oxidants (chlorine, chlor-amine, chlorine dioxide, permanganate, ozone)

  • Assessment of the influence of water qualityparameters (DOC, alkalinity, pH, temperature, ammonia) on toxin oxidation

Participants:EAWAG, UEX, WRc, UAL, ULO


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 5+6 Polishing and Final Treatment


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 7 - Alternative Techniques

Participants:Kiwa, UAL

  • Protocol of optimised membrane filtration procedures (ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reversed osmosis)


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

WP 7 - Alternative Techniques

Participants:Kiwa, UAL

Nanofiltration:


Barriers against cyanotoxins in drinking water

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Final project outcome – published results

Participants:all partners

  • Providing of an Analytical Manual (ISBN: 951-765-259-3)

  • Providing of a EuropeanBest Practice Guidance Manual for selection, design and operation of treatment plant, raw water monitoring and toxin analysis ([email protected])

  • Providing of a commercially available software package for treatment process simulation ([email protected])


In 2008 international guidance manual for the management of toxic cyanobacteria

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

in 2008:International Guidance Manual for the Management of Toxic Cyanobacteria

  • Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

  • Chapter 2 RISK ASSESSMENT IN SOURCE WATERS

  • Chapter 3 MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SOURCE WATERS

  • Chapter 4 DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MONITORING PROGRAM

  • Chapter 5 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PLANS

  • Chapter 6 TREATMENT OPTIONS

  • Chapter 7 CASE STUDIES

    A paper of the Global Water Research Coalition

    www.globalwaterresearchcoalition.net


Case studies

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Case studies


Case study i pilote scale

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Case study I: pilote scale


Case study ii pilote scale

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Case study II: pilote scale


Case study iii pilote scale

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Case study III: pilote scale


Case study vi pilote scale

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Case study VI: pilote scale


Conclusions

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Conclusions

  • Toxin removal (cell bound and dissolved) with high efficiency is possible !!!

  • The non calculable risk is the toxin release – an efficient additional barrier is the use of activated carbon.


Many thanks

TOXIC - EVK1-2001-00182

Manythanks

  • Geoff Codd

  • Jussi Meriluoto

  • Tom Hall

  • Hanne Kaas

  • Urs von Gunten

  • Bas Heijman

  • Maria Rosa

  • Joanna Mankiewicz

  • Malgozata Taczynska †

  • Juan Acero

  • Jose Meneira

  • Gayle Newcomb

  • Bill Harding

  • Ingrid Chorus


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