Impulse and momentum
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Impulse and Momentum. Terminology. Impulse: F Δ t, or the product of the average force on object and the time interval over which it acts (measures in Newton-seconds) Momentum: mv, or the product of the object’s mass and the objects velocity

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Impulse and Momentum

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Impulse and momentum

Impulse and Momentum


Terminology

Terminology

  • Impulse: FΔt, or the product of the average force on object and the time interval over which it acts (measures in Newton-seconds)

  • Momentum: mv, or the product of the object’s mass and the objects velocity

  • Impulse-momentum Theorem: FΔt= pf –pi ; The impulse on an object is equal to the object’s final momentum mines the object’s initial momentum (p= momentum)


Concepts

Concepts

  • The momentum of an object is the product of its mass and velocity and is a vector quantitiy.

  • The impulse of an object is the average net force exerts on the object multiplied by the time interval over which the force acts.

  • The impulse on an object is equal to the change in momentum of the object.


Questions

Questions

  • A pitcher claims he can throw a 0.151 kg baseball with as much momentum as a 3.0 g bullet moving with a speed of 1.50  103 m/s. Which of the following is true

    • a) ball has greater kinetic energy.

    • b) both have the same kinetic energy.    

    • c) the bullet has greater kinetic energy.

    • None of the above

  • A pitcher throws a 0.15 kg baseball so that it crosses home plate horizontally with a speed of 10 m/s. It is hit straight back at the pitcher with a final speed of 24 m/s. Assume the direction of the initial motion of the baseball to be positive.

    • What is the impulse delivered to the ball?

    • Find the average force exerted by the bat on the ball if the two are in contact for 2.0  10-3 s.


Equations

Equations

  • F=MA

  • F=M (ΔV/ ΔT)

  • P=MV

  • FΔt= MΔV

  • P= momentum

  • V=veolicity

  • M= mass

  • F= force

  • T= time


Conservation of linear momentum in collisions

Conservation of Linear Momentum in Collisions


Terminology1

Terminology

  • Closed system: a system that does not gain or lose mass

  • Isolated system: a closed system on which the net external force is zero

  • Law of conservation of momentum: states that the momentum of any closed, isolated system does not change


Concepts and equations

Concepts and Equations

  • In a linear collision, momentum is neither gained nor loss. Momentum is transferred to another object.

  • ½m1iv1i² + ½m2iv2i²= ½m1fv1f² + ½m2fv2f²

  • m1v1i + m2v2i= m1v1f + m2v2f

  • m1v1i + m2iv2i= vf (m1+ m2)


Quesions

Quesions

  • A 1245 kg car traveling initially with a speed of 25.0 m/s in an easterly direction crashes into the rear end of a 9100 kg truck moving in the same direction at 20.0 m/s. The velocity of the car right after the collision is 18.0 m/s to the east.

    • What is the velocity of the truck right after the collision?

  • In a football game, a receiver is standing still, having just caught a pass. Before he can move, a tackler, running at a velocity of +4.8 m/s, grabs him. The tackler holds onto the receiver, and the two move off together with a velocity of +2.6 m/s. The mass of the tackler is 116 kg. Assuming that momentum is conserved, find the mass of the receiver. 

    • A) 121 kg

    • B)107 kg

    • C) 73 kg

    • D) 98 kg


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