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能源消费水平的高低,是衡量一个国家在一定时期内经济技术发展水平的重要标志。 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 九 章 能 源 化 学. 能源消费水平的高低,是衡量一个国家在一定时期内经济技术发展水平的重要标志。. 9.1 能源概述. 9.2 常规能源. 9.3 新 能 源. 9.4 化学电池. 9.1 能 源 概 述. 能源是指能够转换成热能、光能、电磁能、机械能、化学能等各种能量形式的资源。 能源的形式有多种,如燃料、核能、太阳能、水力、地热、风能、潮汐能等等。 能源的分类很多 : 一次能源;二次能源。 常规能源;新能源。. 风 能. 风 能. 新疆羊八井地热. 9.2 常 规 能 源.

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能源消费水平的高低,是衡量一个国家在一定时期内经济技术发展水平的重要标志。

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9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4


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9.1

:


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9.2

9.2.1

1.

30kJg-1

:

a.

b.(SO2 SO3CO)


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2.

C(s) + H2O (g) = CO (g) + H2(g)

Hm ( 298.15K ) = 131.3kJ.mol-1

C (s) + O2 (g) = CO2 (g)

Hm (298.15K) = - 393.5kJ.mol-1

CO (g) + H2 (g) = CH4 (g) + H2O (l)

Hm (298.15K) = - 250.2kJ.mol-1


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3.

(1)

(2)

101.325Pa 200oC

6CO + 13H2 = C6H14 + 6H2O

8CO + 17H2 = C8H18 + 8H2O

8CO + 4H2 = C4H8 + 4CO2


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9.2.2

1.

C8H18

C16H34 C8H18 + C8H16


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2.

CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) = CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

Hm(298.15K) = - 890 kJ.mol-1


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9.3

9.3.1

E =m c2

E

m

c( 3108 m s-1 )


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1. ______ (10n)

35 30Zn 64Gd

1g U-235 8107 kJ


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2. ______ 108 C

,


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9.3.2

1.__

2.__

3.__CO2H2OO2


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9.3.3

1.

(1)

(2)

(3)


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(200 - 300)KPa

LaNi5 + 3H2 LaNi5H6

2.

3.


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9.4

, , ,,


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9.4.1

1.


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(1)

(-) Zn | ZnCl2, NH4Cl() | MnO2 | C (+)

(2)


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Hg ()

Zn(OH)2 HgOKOH

  • (3)

  • (-) Zn (Hg) | KOH(,ZnO)

  • | HgO | Hg(+)


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    (4)

    (-) Li | LiI | I2()(+)


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    2.

    ,


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    (1)

    (-) Pb | H2SO4(1.25~1.30gcm-3) | PbO2 (+)


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    (2)(-) C | H2 | KOH | NiOOH (+)

    (3)

    (-) Na | Al2O3 | S+Na2Sx | C (+)


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    3.

    80%


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    (-) C | H2 | KOH(aq) | O2 | C (+)


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