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Marshall McLuhan

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Marshall mcluhan

All media work us over completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched, unaffected, unaltered. The medium is the massage. Any understanding of social and cultural change is impossible without a knowledge of the way media work as environments.

(McLuhan, Understanding Media , 1967)

Marshall McLuhan

Bullet or hypodermic theory

Bullet or Hypodermic Theory


Source Receiver

Two way process

Two-Way Process


Source Receiver


Stalagmite theories

Stalagmite Theories

  • Slow and subtle effects of mass communication

  • Social Learning Theory

    • media are active, though subtle, educators in teaching about the world

Cultivation theory

Cultivation Theory

  • “mainstreaming”

  • “affirmation for believers” and “indoctrination for deviants”

  • “story-telling role”

  • stereotyping and perceived reality

  • “cultivation of complacency”

Agenda setting theory

Agenda Setting Theory

The true power of the media is not in telling people what to think, but in telling them what to think about.

Media effects theories

Media Effects Theories

  • McLuhan and Toronto school

    • media affect how we organize our thoughts

  • Meaning Theory

    • media mould meaning

    • meaning may or may not be shared with audiences and producers

Media effects theories1

Media Effects Theories

  • Audience Use Theories

  • how receivers use media and the messages received

    • entertain, inform, escape, companion

Media and health promotion

Media and Health Promotion

  • Mass communication theories fit well with health promotion concepts

    • Health Belief Model can use Social Learning Theory and Cultivation Analysis Theory

    • Agenda Setting role of media useful in marketing awareness to assist with move through stages of TTM

Tying it all together

Tying it all together

Health promotion work awareness strategies

Health Promotion Work – Awareness strategies

Brauer, et al., 2006

Health promotion work environmental supports

Health Promotion Work-- Environmental supports

Brauer, et al., 2006

Health promotion work policy development

Health Promotion Work-- Policy development

  • Policies that establish

    • Healthy workplaces

    • Healthy schools

    • Healthy communities

    • Food access

    • Food availability

    • Reduced # living on low incomes

    • Limited exclusion of low income Canadians from participating in society

    • Restored social safety net

Brauer, et al., 2006

Adult education

Adult Education

  • Adult roles, responsibilities, & previous experiences influence learning

    - topic relevant to their lives

    - hands-on learning

  • Adult learning is constantly occurring

  • Role of adult educator to facilitate this continuous learning process

Adult education1

Adult Education

  • Formal and Informal learning

    • Working with experience

    • Dialoguing & storytelling

    • Networking

Adult education2

Adult Education

  • Themed throughout course

    • Health promotion

    • Capacity building

    • Community development

    • Participatory approaches

    • Enlightenment, empowerment & emancipation

Best practices in nutrition interventions

Best Practices in Nutrition Interventions

  • Lit review by Cancer Care Ontario

  • Searched e-databases + key informant interviews

  • ID’d effective interventions

    • program

    • policy

    • media

Health promotion approaches programs

Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs

  • Education, awareness & skill building

    • knowledge gained  motivation & attitude change

    • require booster interventions as reinforcement (aka follow-up)

    • supports needed to facilitate new “behaviour”

    • supports for reinforcement of change

Health promotion approaches programs1

Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs

  • Community Action

    • Focuses on community as force to ID & solve its problems

      • Empowerment, capacity building

Health promotion approaches programs2

Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs

  • Environmental Support

    • Addresses physical & social aspects of environment

      • local action groups, mutual aid networks

    • can enhance & support health attitudes, behaviours

Health promotion approaches media efforts

Health Promotion Approaches -- Media Efforts

  • Series of planned activities directed at whole populations

  • Primary roles of media:

    • presenter of new ideas

    • supporter to reinforce old messages

    • supplement to other program activities

    • promoter of programs

Health promotion approaches policies

Health Promotion Approaches -- Policies

  • Guide activities & resource allocation to contribute to development of healthy environment

Health promotion approaches theory

Health Promotion Approaches -- Theory

  • Theory attempts to explain behaviour

  • Can guide development of effective interventions

  • All programs have a theory

    • not possible not to have a theory

Best practices in nutrition interventions1

Best Practicesin Nutrition Interventions

  • Used participatory models

    • planning, implementation, evaluation

  • Grounded in theory

  • Multiple strategies

  • Provided training & support

    • essential

  • Targeted stage of change

Best practices in nutrition interventions2

Best Practicesin Nutrition Interventions

  • Involved family

    • NB source of support

  • Adequate intensity & duration

    • not one-time events

  • Clear, simple messages

  • Considered political climate

  • Open communication lines

    • between involved organizations

Best practices recommendations

Best Practices -- Recommendations

  • Development stage

    • participatory models

    • included all stakeholders

      • ID needs & priorities, develop strategies

    • target population

      • begin to develop skill base needed to sustain program

Best practices recommendations1

Best Practices -- Recommendations

  • Effective implementation

    • adequate resources

    • training & support to sustain intervention long enough to bring about desired change

    • funding provided for intensive evaluation

Best practices on the web

Best Practices on the Web

  • PHAC launched portal at conference Nov 5-8/06

  • Canadian Best Practices Portal for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention


Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Demonstrate knowledge necessary for conducting health promotion that includes:

    • Applying determinants of health framework to analysis of health issues

    • Applying theory to health promotion planning & implementations

    • Applying health promotion principles in context of roles & responsibilities of public health organizations

    • Describing range of interventions available to address public health issues

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft1

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Conduct community needs/situational assessment for specific issues that include:

    • ID behavioural, social, environmental & organizational factors that promote or compromise health

    • ID relevant & appropriate data & information sources

    • ID community assets & resources

    • Partner with communities to validate collected quant & qual data

    • Integrate information from available sources to ID priorities for action

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft2

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Plan appropriate health promotion programs that includes:

    • ID, retrieving & critically appraising relevant literature

    • Conduct environmental scan of best practices

    • Develop component plan to implement programs including goals, objectives & implementations steps

    • Develop program budget

    • Monitor & evaluate implementation of interventions

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft3

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Contribute to policy development that includes:

    • Describing implications of policy options

      • health, economic, admin, legal, social & political

    • Provide strategic policy advice on health promotion issues

    • Write clear & concise policy statements for complex issues

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft4

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Facilitate community mobilization & build community capacity around shared health priorities that includes:

    • Engaging in dialogue with communities based on trust & mutual respect

    • ID & strengthen local community capacities to take action on health issues

    • Advocate for & with individuals & communities that will improve their health & well-being

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft5

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Engage in partnership & collaboration that includes:

    • Establish & maintain linkages with community leaders & other key health promotion stakeholders (e.g., schools, businesses, churches, community associations, labour unions, etc.)

    • Utilize leadership, team building, negotiation & conflict resolution skills to build community partnerships

    • Build coalitions & stimulating intersectoral collaboration on health issues

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft6

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Communicate effectively with community members & other professionals that include:

    • Provide health status, demographic, statistical, programmatic, & scientific information tailored to professional & lay audiences

    • Apply social marketing & other communication principles to the development, implementation & evaluation of health communication campaigns

    • Use media, advanced technologies, & community networks to receive & communicate information

    • Interact with, & adapt policies & programming that responds to diversity in population characteristics

Pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft7

Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft

  • Organize, implement & manage health promotion interventions that includes:

    • Training & coordinating program volunteers

    • Describe scope of work in context of organization’s mission & functions

    • Contribute to team & organizational learning

Key proficiencies

Key Proficiencies

  • Knowledge

    • Behaviour change & education theories

    • Nutrition throughout the lifecycle

    • Cultural sensitivity

    • Knowledge about policy & policy process

    • Principles of adult education

Key proficiencies1

Key Proficiencies

  • Skills

    • Counseling & education methods

    • Create safe environment to facilitate learning & trust

    • Communication

    • Listening

    • Ability to empathize

    • Compassion

Key proficiencies2

Key Proficiencies

  • Behaviours

    • Modeling a healthy lifestyle

    • Demonstrate genuine empathy

    • Allow participants to determine own goals

    • Listening without judging

Key proficiencies3

Key Proficiencies

  • Core Beliefs

    • Communities are capable of making change

    • Adults are capable of self direction

    • Community is expert on itself

    • People learn in various ways

    • Respect for others

    • Policy is the root of our food system

    • A few people really can make a difference in the world

Key proficiencies4

Key Proficiencies

  • Values

    • All people deserve & want health

    • A value of people

    • A value of wellness

    • A value of lifelong learning

    • Personal honesty & respect for others

    • Caring, compassion, & it is part of life’s mission to help others without the need to impose your beliefs or values on others

Key proficiencies5

Key Proficiencies

  • Character Traits

    • Flexibility to tailor approach to needs of client

    • Willingness to provide superior customer service

    • Compassion

    • Enthusiasm

    • Energy

    • Humility

Key proficiencies6

Key Proficiencies

  • Motivations

    • Reward of helping people achieve their goals

    • Desire to help people help themselves

    • Desire to make positive difference in the lives of others

Future program directions

Future Program Directions

  • Need better efforts “to integrate program to minimize duplication & optimize resources”

  • Need “sustained long-term resources to facilitate comprehensive evaluation”

  • Involving stakeholders in program development, implementation & evaluation “could be crucial to the success of interventions”

    • Flynn, McNeil, Maloff, et al., 2006

Job interview question areas

Job Interview Question Areas

  • Based on Critical Factors for Eligibility

    • Knowledge/Education

    • Communication Skills

    • Interpersonal Skills

    • Problem Solving Skills

    • Organizational Skills

    • Ability to function as part of a team

Best practices article

Best Practices Article

Flynn, M.A.T., McNeil, D.A., Maloff, B., Mutasingwa, D., Wu, M, Ford, C., & Tough, S.C. (2006). Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: A synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Obesity Reviews, 7(Suppl.1), 7-66.

[published by The International Association for the Study of Obesity]

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