Development of drugs for resistant pathogens
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Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens. Francis P. Tally M.D. Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens. Antimicrobials Developed. Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens Characteristics to Justify Development. Microbiological Superiority

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Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens

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Development of drugs for resistant pathogens

Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens

Francis P. Tally M.D.

Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc.


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens1

Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens

Antimicrobials Developed


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens characteristics to justify development

Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens Characteristics to Justify Development

  • Microbiological Superiority

    • Inhibit resistant organisms

  • Pharmacological Advantage

    • Frequency of dosing

    • Ease of administration

  • Safety Advantage


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens preclinical ind criteria

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensPreclinical IND Criteria

  • Potency

    • therapeutic potency vs. drug resistant pathogens

    • novel MOA, cidality, low induction of resistance

  • Efficacy

    • Competitive efficacy vs. key pathogens in salient models

  • Pharmacokinetics

    • IV required for serious infections

    • Oral bioavailability desired to facilitate registration study

  • Safety

    • balance risk/benefit with infection

    • mild, reversible, easily monitored safety profile


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens problems with iv only drugs

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensProblems With IV Only Drugs

  • Serious Infections – limited Subjects for enrollment – cSST, pneumonia intraabdominal infections

  • Selection of Comparative Agent (Stop Biocreep)

  • Inpatient Hospital Requirement vs. Home IV Therapy

  • Criteria for oral switch – small delta magnifies the challenges to perform adequate studies


Antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens

Antimicrobial Resistance in Nosocomial Pathogens


Drug resistance in the usa cubist secure surveillance study 50 centers

Drug Resistance in the USACubist SECURE surveillance study, 50 Centers

*multi-drug resistance


Penicillinase producing staphylococcus aureus

Penicillinase-Producing Staphylococcus aureus

H. Chambers (personal communication)


Nosocomial methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus mrsa infections

Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections

Fridkin et al. Clin Chest Med.1999;20:303.


Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus sfgh

Methicillin-ResistantStaphylococcus aureus: SFGH

Charlebois et al. EPI Center Data.


Mrsa in bay area communities

MRSAin Bay Area Communities

H. Chambers (personal communication)


Reports of community acquired mrsa

Reports of Community-Acquired MRSA

H. Chambers (personal communication)


Resistant pathogens nosocomial enterococci infections resistant to vancomycin

Resistant PathogensNosocomial Enterococci Infections Resistant to Vancomycin*

ICU

Non-ICU

25

20

15

% Resistance

10

5

0

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Year

*NNIS 1989-1997.

Fridkin SK, Gaynes RP. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 1999.


Antibacterial drugs in development

Antibacterial Drugs in Development


Development of new chemical entity

Development of New Chemical Entity

  • Efficacy – type of infection

    • Mild - UTI, Otitis Media

    • Serious – pneumonia, intraabdominal infections

    • Severe – meningitis, endocarditis

  • Two well-controlled trials with appropriate “delta” are required

  • Safety - over 1,000 patients required will result in study of 2,500-3,000 patients

  • Cost of each patient enrolled $30,182 in Cubist studies in 2002


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens2

Development of Drugs for Resistant Pathogens

  • Cost of Clinical Studies with per patient cost of $30,182:


Action item 82

Action Item 82

  • Streamline the regulatory process to bring AR products to market efficiently while assuring safety and efficacy

  • Subpart E

    • Surrogate endpoints – not appropriate in bacterial infections – resistant pathogen is endpoint

    • Potential surrogate is susceptible pathogen

    • Animal model surrogates are only guides to the clinical study


Action item 821

Action Item 82

  • AR for life threatening infections focus development – selected infections

    • MRSA – incidence high enough in U.S. clinical studies

      • cSST

      • BE/bacteremia

      • Nosocomial pneumonia

    • VRE – incidence low in different infections drives need to obtain microbiology claim

      • cUTI

      • Wound

      • Bacteremia - in ICU, transplant and immunocompromised patients


Action item 80

Action Item 80

  • To promote development and appropriate use of priority AR products

  • Restrictive labeling to antibiotic resistant organism

    • MRSA - empiric therapy worth developing

    • VRE - niche product not worth developing

  • Products with safety issues and activity vs. resistant pathogens will be restricted based on the physicians creed to do no harm


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens drug categories

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensDrug Categories

  • Broad range of indications requires large clinical program with two well controlled and sized studies to support claims. Two potential sources:

    • New classes of drugs

    • Analog of an approved drug with novel activity versus resistant pathogens

  • Conclusion: Both types need full development to determine appropriate use

    • Adequate dose to retard resistance development

    • Appropriate indications for use


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens drug categories1

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensDrug Categories

  • Narrow range e.g. gram positive for serious infections requires IV

  • New agents vs. old agents approved previously for susceptible pathogens.

  • Learn from vancomycin use tracts with increasing frequency of MRSA


Vancomycin use in the us

Vancomycin Use in the US

VISA reported

ICU MRSA rate > 30%

Kirst. AAC. 1998;42:1303.


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens opinion

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensOpinion

  • What is the “problem” in focused drug development for Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms?

    • Very limited drugs in pipeline

    • The promise that genomic sequencing of pathogens and combinatory chemistry would yield new antimicrobial drugs has failed

    • To realize the potential of genomics in antimicrobial development will require substantial funding for new approaches


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens opinion1

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensOpinion

  • What is the “problem” in focused drug development for Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms? (continued)

    • FDA clearly indicate the number of patients with resistant infections required in efficacy trials

      • Is it absolute number or

      • A percentage of the dominant pathogen e.g. MRSA/MSSE; VRE/Enterococci

    • Cost to prove clinical efficacy and safety of known novel compound ~$75M-$150M

    • To restrict novel new drugs for antibiotic resistant isolates only would limit market return to levels that would not justify development


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens cubist path with iv only narrow spectrum drug

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensCubist Path with IV Only Narrow Spectrum Drug

  • Efficacy – selected indication with high incidence of Gram positive pathogens

    • cSST – Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA

    • CAP – Streptococcus pneumoniae

    • Bacterial endocarditis – S. aureus

    • cUTI – Enterococci, VRE

  • Safety – new classes of drugs

    • Two well-controlled trials for each indication

  • Special antibiotic resistant pathogens

    • MRSA – efficacy proven in selected indications

    • VRE – design pathogen-based clinical trial


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens what is the answer frank tally

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensWhat is the answer? – Frank Tally

  • Antimicrobial resistance is a complex issue without simple solutions

  • Reserving novel new antimicrobial agents for antimicrobial resistant pathogens will

    • Limit the economic return

    • Result in decreased research in both big pharma and biotech sectors

    • Doesn’t solve the problem


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens what is the answer frank tally1

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensWhat is the answer? – Frank Tally

  • To justify the high investment to develop novel drugs, the drug’s use should be determined based upon the safety and effectiveness of the agent in focused, well-designed clinical studies

  • Industry and Regulatory Agencies should have frequent dialog in the design of clinical studies to develop novel agents for antimicrobial resistant pathogens


Development of drugs for resistant pathogens what is the answer frank tally2

Development of Drugs for Resistant PathogensWhat is the answer? – Frank Tally

  • In order to restrict a safe novel antimicrobial agent to the shelf for only antimicrobial resistant pathogens, the government would have to develop a large funded program similar to the efforts for AIDS and cancer


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