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People, Processes, Structures. Pfeffer’s 7 People-Centered Practices. Job security (to eliminate fear of layoffs). Careful hiring (emphasizing a good fit with the company culture). Power to the people (via decentralization and self-managed teams). Generous pay for performance.

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People processes structures
People, Processes, Structures

Pfeffer’s 7 People-Centered Practices

  • Job security (to eliminate fear of layoffs).

  • Careful hiring (emphasizing a good fit with the company culture).

  • Power to the people (via decentralization and self-managed teams).

  • Generous pay for performance.

  • Lots of training.

  • Less emphasis on status (to build a “we” feeling).

  • Trust building (through the sharing of critical information).


Skills exhibited by an effective manager
Skills Exhibited by an Effective Manager

1. Clarifies goals and objectives for everyone involved

2. Encourages participation, upward communication, and suggestions

3. Plans and organizes for an orderly work flow

4. Has technical and administrative expertise to answer organization-related questions

5. Facilitates work through team building, training, coaching and support

6. Provides feedback honestly and constructively


Skills exhibited by an effective manager1
Skills Exhibited by an Effective Manager

7. Keeps things moving by relying on schedules, deadlines, and helpful reminders

8. Controls details without being over-bearing

9. Applies reasonable pressure for goalaccomplishment

10. Empowers and delegates key duties to others while maintaining goal clarity and commitment

11. Recognizes good performance with rewards and positive reinforcement


Ethics at work
Ethics at Work

Key Issues:

1. What about loyalty and commitment to the organization in the age of “Me, Inc.?”

2. Under the new employment contract, what do you owe the company and what does the company owe you?


Evolution of the 21st century manager
Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager

Past Managers Future Managers

Primary Role Order giver, privileged Facilitator, team elite, manipulator, member, teacher, controller advocate, sponsor

Learning & Periodic learning, narrow Continuous life-longKnowledge specialist learning, generalist with multiple specialties

Compensation Time, effort, rank Skills, resultsCriteria

Cultural Orientation Mono-cultural, Multicultural, monolingual multilingual


Evolution of the 21st century manager1
Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager

Past Managers Future Managers

Primary Source of Formal authority Knowledge (technicalInfluence interpersonal)

View of People Potential problem Primary resource

Primary Vertical MultidirectionalCommunicationsPattern

Decision-Making Limited input for Broad-based input forStyle individual decisions joint decisions

Ethical Afterthought ForethoughtConsiderations


Evolution of the 21st century manager continued
Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager (continued)

Past Managers Future Managers

Nature of Inter- Competitive Cooperative personal (win-lose) (win- win) Relationships

Handling of Power Hoard Shareand KeyInformation

Approach to Resist FacilitateChange


Learning about ob through theory research and practice
Learning About OB Through Theory, Research, and Practice

Theory

Research

Practice

Most completeinformation for betterunderstandingand managingorganizationalbehavior


Learning about ob from theory
Learning About OB From Theory

A good theoretical model:

  • Defines key terms.

  • Constructs a conceptual framework that explains how important factors are interrelated. (Graphic models.)

  • Provides a departure point for research and practical application.


Learning about ob from research
Learning About OB From Research

Five Sources of OB Research Insights (a Priority Listing):

  • Meta-analyses

  • Field studies

  • Laboratory studies

  • Sample surveys

  • Case studies


Three uses of ob research findings
Three Uses Of OB Research Findings

  • Instrumental Use (Direct practical application)

  • Conceptual Use (General conceptual enlightenment)

  • Symbolic Use (Verify or legitimize existing positions)


A topical model for what lies ahead
A Topical Model for What Lies Ahead

External Environment (Cultural Context)

Organization (Structure, Culture, Change)

Understandingand managingindividualbehavior

Understandingand managinggroup andsocialprocesses

Managers responsiblefor achievingorganizationalresults with andthrough others

Organizationaleffectivenessthroughcontinuousimprovement

Understandingand managingorganizationalprocesses andproblems


Chapter 1 key issues
Chapter 1 Key Issues

  • What is OB?

  • What is the contingency approach to management?

  • Levels of analysis: individual, group, organizational

  • What is managing and why is managing in the US different than managing in another country, such as Germany?

  • Perspectives of effectiveness: individual, group, and organizational; what are causes? How do managers contribute to effectiveness?

  • Compare goal, systems, and multiple-constituency approaches to effectiveness


Organizational culture
Organizational Culture

“The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.”

- Edgar Schein


Embedding organizational culture
Embedding Organizational Culture

  • Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization

  • The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings

  • Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings

  • Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors

  • Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles), and promotion criteria

  • Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events


Embedding organizational culture continued
Embedding Organizational Culture(Continued)

  • The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control

  • Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises

  • The workflow and organizational structure

  • Organizational systems and procedures

  • Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people


SCHEIN’S THREE LAYER ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL

Artifacts & creations

Visible but often not decipherable

Examples of cultural attributes

Documents

Physical layouts Furnishings

Language

Jargon

Work ethics Commitment

Helping others Management equity Competency counts

Greater level of awareness

Values

Basic assumptions

Taken for granted


Cooke colleagues model shared norms and behavioral expectations
Cooke & Colleagues’ ModelShared Norms and Behavioral Expectations

  • Constructive Cultural Styles

  • Self-Actualizing

  • Affiliative

  • Humanistic

  • Achievement

  • Passive-Defensive Cultural Styles

  • Approval

  • Conventional

  • Dependent

  • Avoidance

  • Aggressive-Defensive Cultural Styles

  • Oppositional

  • Power

  • Competitive

  • Perfectionistic


Types of Organizational Culture

Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics

Constructive Achievement Goal and achievement oriented

Constructive Self-actualizing Value self-development and creativity

Constructive Humanistic- Participative, employee encouraging centered, and supportive

Constructive Affiliative High priority on constructive interpersonal relationships, and focus on work group satisfaction


Types of Organizational Culture (continued)

Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics

Aggressive- Oppositional Confrontation and negativismDefensive rewarded

Aggressive- Power Non-participative, take charge ofDefensive subordinates, and responsive to superiors

Aggressive- Competitive Winning is values and a win-loseDefensive approach is used

Aggressive- Perfectionist Perfectionist, persistent, andDefensive hard working


Types of Organizational Culture (continued)

Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics

Passive- Approval Avoid conflict, strive to be likedDefensive by others, and approval oriented

Passive- Conventional Conservative, bureaucratic, andDefensive people follow the rules

Passive- Dependent Nonparticipative, centralizedDefensive decision making, and employees do what they are told

Passive- Avoidance Negative reward system andDefensive avoid accountability


Outcomes of culture

Constructive Cultures associated with:

Satisfaction

Role clarity

Empowerment

Retention

Performance

Stability

Organizational Identity

Share core values

Defensive Cultures associated with:

Turnover

Role ambiguity

Dissatisfaction

Poor morale

Resistance

Outcomes of Culture

What is your department and organization culture?

How do you change the culture?


Developing an adaptive culture
Developing an Adaptive Culture

Early business leaders create an implement a business vision

and strategy that fits the business environment well.

Business leaders emphasize the importance of constituencies and leadership in creating the success.

Firm succeeds.

A strong culture emerges with a core that emphasizes service to customers,

stockholders, and employees, as well as the importance of leadership.

Subsequent top managers work to preserve theadaptive core of the culture.They demonstrate greater commitment to itsbasic principles than any specific businessstrategy or practice.


A model of organizational socialization
A Model of Organizational Socialization

Perceptual and Social Processes

Phases

  • Anticipatory socializationLearning that occurs prior to joining the organizationFit Person to CultureAcquire Information

  • Anticipating realities about the organization and the new job

  • Anticipating organization’s need for one’s skills and abilities

  • Anticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values


A model of organizational socialization cont
A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.)

Perceptual and Social Processes

Phases

2. Encounter Values, skills and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what theorganization is truly likeGain on the job experience

  • Managing lifestyle- versus-work conflicts

  • Managing intergroup role conflicts

  • Seeking role definition and clarity

  • Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics


A model of organizational socialization cont1
A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.)

Perceptual and Social Processes

Phases

3. Change and acquisition Recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to workgroup’s values and norms

  • Competing role demands are resolved

  • Critical tasks are mastered

  • Group norms and values are internalized

  • Reward and recognize


A model of organizational socialization continued

Outsider

1. Anticipatory socialization

Phases

2. Encounter

3. Change and acquisition

  • Behavioral Outcomes

  • Performs role assignments

  • Remains with organization

  • Spontaneously innovates and cooperates

  • Affective Outcomes

  • Generally satisfied

  • Internally motivated to work

  • High job involvement

SocializedInsider –

Congruence

A Model of Organizational Socialization (continued)


Socialization culture
Socialization & Culture

  • Anticipatory socialization – realism and congruence; selection and placement programs focus on objective aspects of job and organization. Career paths – lateral and downward.

  • Accommodation socialization – orientation programs, training programs, performance evaluations, challenging work, demanding and fair supervisors

  • Role management socialization – satisfaction and turnover are related to socialization. Must consistently and fairly handle conflicts, flexible work assignments, person-oriented managers.


Mentoring
Mentoring

The process of forming and maintaining an intensive and lasting developmental relationship between a senior person (the mentor) and a junior person.

Functions of Mentoring

  • Career Functions- Sponsorship- Exposure and visibility- Coaching- Protection- Challenging assignments

  • Psychosocial Functions- Role modeling- Acceptance and confirmation- Counseling- Friendship


Phases of the mentor relationship
Phases of the Mentor Relationship

Phase Definition

Initiation A period of six months to a year during which time the relationship gets started and begins to have importance for both managers.

Cultivation A period of two to five years during which time the range of career and psychosocial functions provided expand to a maximum.

Separation A period of six months to two years after a significant change in the structural role relationship and/or in the emotional experience of the relationship.

Redefinition An indefinite period after the separation phase, during which time the relationship is ended or takes on significantly different characteristics, making it a more peerlike friendship.


A model of ethical behavior in the workplace

Cultural Influences

- Family

- Education

-Religion

- Media/entertainment

RoleExpectations

Individual

- Personality

- Values

- Moral

principles

- History of

reinforcement

- Gender

Organizational Influences

- Ethical codes

- Organizational culture

- Role models

- Perceived pressure for results

- Rewards/punishment system

Ethical behavior

Political/legal/

economic

influences

A Model of Ethical Behavior in the Workplace


The four layers of diversity
The Four Layers of Diversity

Organizational Dimensions

Functional Level/ Classification

External Dimensions*

Geographic Location

MaritalStatus

WorkContent/Field

Mgmt.Status

Internal Dimensions*

Income

Age

Personality

ParentalStatus

PersonalHabits

Race

Division/Dept./Unit/Group

RecreationalHabits

Appearance

SexualOrientation

Ethnicity

UnionAffiliation

PhysicalAbility

WorkExperience

Religion

EducationalBackground

WorkLocation

Seniority

Source: L Gardenswartz and A Rowe, Diverse Teams at Work: Capitalizing on the Power of Diversity (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), p. 33



Implications of increasing diversity
Implications of Increasing Diversity

  • Progressive human resource programs needed to attract and retain the best workers

  • Educational mismatches create lack of skilled entry-level workers and underemployed college graduates

  • Organizations contribute resources to resolving educational problems in the U.S.

  • Career plateaus increases for younger workers

  • Managerial initiatives are needed to adapt to an aging workforce


Potential competitive advantages of managing diversity
Potential* Competitive Advantages of Managing Diversity

  • Lower Costs and Improved Employee Attitudes

  • Improved Recruiting Efforts

  • Increased Sales and Market Share

  • Increased Creativity and Innovation

  • Increased Group Problem-Solving and Productivity

*Note that these advantages depend on other factors


Specific diversity initiatives
Specific Diversity Initiatives

  • Accountability Practices - Pertain to treating diverse employees fairly - Create administrative procedures aimed at integrating diverse employees into management ranks

  • Development Practices - Pertain to preparing diverse employees for greater responsibility and advancement - Training programs, networks and support groups, and mentoring are frequently used

  • Recruitment Practices - Pertain to attracting qualified diverse employees at all levels


Barriers and challenges to managing diversity
Barriers and Challenges to Managing Diversity

  • Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice

  • Ethnocentrism

  • Poor career planning

  • Unsupportive and hostile work environment

  • Lack of political savvy by diverse workers

  • Balancing career and family issues

  • Fears of reverse discrimination

  • Diversity not seen as a priority

  • Outdated performance appraisal and reward systems

  • Resistance to change


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