Heat related illness
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Heat Related Illness. Diane King, MS, RD, CSSD, ATC. What is Heat Illness?. It is an accumulation of body heat that results when the body’s ability to cool itself is overwhelming. Body heat increases during exercise naturally and can cool itself through sweat evaporation.

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Heat Related Illness

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Heat related illness

Heat Related Illness

Diane King, MS, RD, CSSD, ATC

What is heat illness

What is Heat Illness?

  • It is an accumulation of body heat that results when the body’s ability to cool itself is overwhelming.

  • Body heat increases during exercise naturally and can cool itself through sweat evaporation.

Why is heat illness a problem in the south

Why is Heat Illness a Problem in the South?

  • The risk of developing heat illness significantly increases in hot, humid environmental conditions because the evaporation of sweat is hindered.

  • Exercise in our conditions can cause dehydration in as little as 30 minutes.

Three levels of heat illness

Three Levels of Heat Illness

  • Heat Cramps

  • Heat Exhaustion

  • Heat Stroke

What are heat cramps

What are Heat Cramps?

Painful, involuntary muscle spasms that occur during heavy exercise in hot environments. Inadequate fluid intake is often the cause.

Muscles most often affected are your calves, quads, arms, abdomen and back.

Heat cramps first aid

Heat Cramps: First Aid

  • Rest and cool down in the shade.

  • Drink water or sports drinks. Sip!

  • Massage and stretch affected area.

  • If cramps do not go away in one hour, call a doctor.

Heat cramps

Heat Cramps

Recognition at this point is critical to prevent further illness.

What is heat exhaustion

What is Heat Exhaustion?

This is what develops after heat cramps have been left untreated.

Symptoms include:

  • Extreme thirst

  • Feeling faint

  • Nausea

  • Heavy sweating

  • Ashen or grey appearance

  • Rapid, weak heart beat

  • Low blood pressure

  • Cool, moist skin

  • Low-grade fever

Heat exhaustion first aid

Heat Exhaustion: First Aid

  • Get the student out of the sun and into a shady or air conditioned location.

  • Lay the student down with feet up.

  • Remove excessive clothing or equipment.

  • Drink small amounts of water, often.

  • Cool the student by spraying or sponging them off with cool water.

    ***Monitor carefully!! Heat exhaustion can quickly become Heat stroke, when in doubt, call 911.

What is heatstroke

What is Heatstroke?

Like heat cramps and heat exhaustion, Heatstroke is often caused from heavy work in hot, humid environments, usually from inadequate fluid intake.

The difference is thermoregulatory capacity is exceeded, and extreme metabolic stresses produce tissue damage, and physiological dysfunction that can result in death.

Heatstroke symptoms

Heatstroke Symptoms

  • Dry, hot, red skin

  • Rapid heart beat, shallow breathing

  • Dizziness, nausea

  • Loss of coordination

  • Irritability, belligerence

  • Seizures

  • Coma

    ***Remember, your heart is a muscle.

Heatstroke first aid

Heatstroke: First aid

  • CALL 911!!

    While waiting on EMS

  • Get the student in a cool place or shade.

  • Remove unnecessary clothing and shoes.

  • Rapid cooling such as ice towels or ice packs on neck, groin and head.

  • Monitor ABC’s




How to adjust for the heat index

How To Adjust For The Heat Index

  • Modifying practice sessions for exercising adolescents

    WBGT Restraints on Activities

    °F °C ____________________________________

    <75.0 <24.0 All activities allowed, but be alert for signs and symptoms of heat-related illness in prolonged events

    75.0 - 78.6 24.0 -25.9 Longer rest periods in the shade; enforce drinking every 15 minutes

    79.0 – 84.0 26.0 – 29.0 Stop activity of unacclimatized persons and high-risk persons; limit activities of all others (disallow long distance races, cut the duration of other activities)

    > 85.0 > 29.0 Cancel all athletic activities

Prevention is the key

Prevention is the key…

  • Stress to your students they have to come to PE already hydrated.

  • Have water available within arms reach.

  • Drink every 15 minutes.

  • Take frequent breaks.

  • Dress for the weather.

    ****Coaches- Allow for acclimation.

Such a lovely sight when it s hot cool em down

Such A Lovely Sight –When It’s Hot, Cool ‘Em Down

After exercise

After exercise…

Fluid replacement

  • 20oz. of fluid per pound of weight loss within 2 hours of exercise.

    (Coaches- weigh athletes before and after practices, when the temperature is above 90 degrees)

  • Encourage students to drink water, or sports drinks, when they are at home and not soft drinks or tea.

Water vs sports drinks

Water vs. Sports drinks


  • Hydrates, but some believe it “washes out electrolytes”.

  • Hyponatremia

    Sports Drinks

  • Hydrates, but some believe they have too much sugar that can cause nausea and diarrhea.

  • Fast electrolyte replacement.

    ***Use both!!!

Early quick fixes

Early “Quick Fixes”

  • Bananas

  • Salty foods

  • Sports drinks (not energy drinks)

  • Yellow mustard

  • Salt or salt substitute

    ***ALWAYS follow quick fixes with proper hydration.

What about mrsa

What About MRSA?

  • To answer the question what are the symptoms of MRSA, it is important to understand that most MRSA symptoms are identical to traditional staph infection symptoms; MRSA is simply a sub-category of staph infection

  • Only a professional bacterial culture or bacterial DNA test can confirm if you have an MRSA or staph infection.

  • MRSA and staph infection are often diagnosed as causing one of several conditions.

What about mrsa1

What About MRSA?

Staph infection symptoms and signs of MRSA infection can show up any place on your body but are more common in the following specific areas:

  • Areas of clothing friction and irritation, such as the legs, buttocks and shaving areas and places where football pads touch the skin

  • Sweaty areas like armpits, neck, face, groin and feet

  • Deeper infections like cellulitis are most common on the arms, hands, lower legs and face.



  • Cellulitis



  • Clusters

Heat related illness


  • Hand

  • Knee

What does mrsa look like

What Does MRSA Look Like?

  • The most common visible MRSA symptoms are bumps, pimple-like lumps, or blisters on the skin (these are also the symptoms of staph aureus infection in general).

  • Lumps on the skin are often accompanied by swelling and reddening of the surrounding skin area.

  • The center of the lump often has a white or yellow pus filled head, which sometimes drains on its own.

What does mrsa look like1

What Does MRSA Look Like?

  • The lumps are often tender, itchy and warm to the touch and can become deep sores with increasing pain and swelling if left unchecked.

  • The color of the surrounding skin area is often red to purple and may begin to spread as the infection progresses.

  • Available on-line at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/aresist/ca_mrsa_public.htm

Is it really a big deal

Is It Really “A Big Deal?”

  • Most MRSA and staph infections are limited to the skin. However, staph can also enter your bloodstream and spread to internal organs. More serious staph infections symptoms that can result from an internal infection are:

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • Weakness or fatigue

  • Shortness of breath

  • Rashes

  • Headache

  • Muscle aches

  • Nausea

  • Acute pain



  • Prevention

  • Education

  • Early recognition

  • Quick response

  • Have necessary tools readily available.




Resources –





Nutrition fueling your performance

Nutrition:Fueling Your Performance

Diane King, MS, RD, CSSD, ATC

Know your limits for giving advice

Know Your Limits For Giving Advice

  • Recommendations should be Basic

  • Teach them to Avoid Skipping Meals or Snacks

  • Fluids Are Important

  • Eat Every 3-4 Hours

    When Possible

Secret to optimal performance

Secret To Optimal Performance

  • “The real secret of effective training is conditioning your brain to recognize what kind of foods

    your body


Energy requirements

Energy Requirements

  • Another Estimate for Active, Male Athletes:

    (your body weight x 21) + activity = calories/day

    A 200-pound male practicing soccer for 2 hours can use approximately

    630 calories ; a 150-pound athlete can burn about 475 calories

Myth buster

Myth Buster

  • I need extra protein because I’m trying to build muscle

  • There’s no such

    thing as to much


Pre practice snack ideas

Pre-Practice Snack Ideas

  • CRUNCHY – Pretzels, Popcorn, Animal Crackers, Trail Mix, Granola Bars, Baked Chips

  • CHEWY – Raisins, Dried Fruit, Bagels, Breakfast Bars, Rice Krispie Treats

  • CREAMY – Pudding, Yogurt, Peanut Butter, Milkshakes

  • Juicy – Fresh Fruits, Applesauce, Juice Packs, Jello

Fast food

Fast Food

  • Plan Ahead For The Days When You Know You Need To Stop.

  • Portion Control and Balanced

    Food Choices Can Be The Key.

  • Skip The Empty Calories.

Recovery nutrition

Recovery Nutrition

  • Within the FIRST 30 minutes of

    completing practice.

  • Quantity is based on the age

    and size of child.

  • Fluids are okay,

    but don’t get too full.

  • Should include Carbs

    plus Protein

Recovery fluids

Recovery Fluids

  • Sports Drinks, like Gatorade

  • Accelerade

  • Chocolate Milk

  • Fruit Smoothies

  • Fruit Juice




Recommended intakes for kids

Recommended Intakes for Kids

  • TimingAmount

    2 hours before2 cups

    10-15 minutes before2 – 2 ½ cups

    Every 15-20 minutes during½ - 1 cup

    After Activity2 cups for every pound


Color scale

Color Scale

  • Pale like Lemonade

  • Not Dark Like Apple Juice

Game day nutrition

Game Day Nutrition

  • 2 to 3 hours before event

  • Meal should include

    • 2/3 high-carbohydrate options for quick energy

    • 1/3 lean protein to build and help repair muscle

    • Food should be salted to replace sodium lost through sweating

  • Game Day Meal Ideas

Game day nutrition1

Game Day Nutrition

  • If Schedule Does Not Permit Going Home Between School and Game, Pack Foods Like:

    • Sports drinks

    • Energy bars

    • Sub sandwiches

    • Snack pack cans of tuna/chicken

    • Dried fruit

    • Whole fruit

    • Crackers and Bagels

Half time snacks won t fix otherwise poor eating habits

Pure Evil?

Pure Fun

Pure Nutrition?

Not Always “Cool”

Half-Time Snacks Won’t Fix Otherwise Poor Eating Habits.

Food is fuel summary

Food is Fuel - Summary

Strategies To Help Maintain “Fuel Tanks”

  • Encourage Athletes to Eat Breakfast Even If It Is Small.

  • Focus On “Grab & Go” Foods.

  • Focus on Foods With Protein and Carbohydrate.

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