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Curs 3. Chapter 2. 1. Participants in the construction process of buildings and their relationships 2. Architectural programs, generalities and basic notions 3. General lay-out of a construction 4. Main types of structural systems. Classification and geometry conditions imposed by P100/2006.

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Chapter 2
Chapter 2

1. Participants in the construction process of buildings and their relationships

2. Architectural programs, generalities and basic notions

3. General lay-out of a construction

4. Main types of structural systems. Classification and geometry conditions imposed by P100/2006


1 participants in the construction process of buildings and their relationships
1. Participants in the construction process of buildings and their relationships

  • The contemporary construction process of buildings

    involves animpressive number of direct and indirect

    participants, from the conceptual up to post-utilisation stage,

    as illustrated by the following (perhaps incomplete) list:

    promoter(investor), consultants, designers, design-verification

    specialists, researchers, producers, and suppliers of

    construction products, contractor(s) subcontractors, laboratory

    and in-situ testing specialists, equipments, geotechnicians, land

    surveyors, surveyors of construction works, quality inspectors,

    technical experts, economists, as well as users, specialised

    public bodies/agencies, professional associations, insurance

    companies et al.


  • Some play a more prominent role and can be considered and their relationships

    to act as a the basics for this process. Always present in

    the picture since olden times, these participants are: the

    promoter(investor),the designer, the contractor

    (constructor) and the user.

  • P  D P =promoter

    III III D =designer

    U  C C =contractor

    U =user

    promoter, since he identified the necessity of erecting a more or less permanent shelter, which had to be in its possession, and decided to achieve it;

    designer, since he imagined how to make it look like or made use of previous experience, in order to get a home properly responding to his needs;

    constructor, since he himself materialised his ideas and making best use of all his skills;

    user, since he actually made use of the construction.


  • P D and their relationshipsP =promoter

    III IIID =designer

    U C C =contractor

    U =user

  • P D situation valid till 19thcentury

    III

    U C

  • P D modern approach

    III

    U C

  • P D modern approach

    U C


  • the promoter and their relationships (often called also investor, client )

    represents a starting point on the complex process of

    achievement and utilisation of any building or construction,

    in general.

  • The promoters of civil engineering projects vary widely in their

    legalstatus. They include central and regional governmental

    agencies, local authorities and public bodies, limited liability

    companies, partnerships and businessmen who are sole traders,

    as well as individuals (in case of small-size constructions, where they

    are also the owners). Contractors can be promoters of some project

    too, such as, for instance, property development or housing estates.

  • the promoter employs a consulting engineer to investigate

    and report on a proposed project. This consultancy may be

    provided either by a specialised firm or by an individual


  • The selection of a consultant engineer should start with and their relationships

    defining the expertise appropriate to the project, in term of

    education, training and experience obtained by having held

    position of major responsibility on important engineering

    works for some years.

    The promoter’s interest may be best served by the appointment of a project manager to plan and manage the respective project and to co-ordinate the relationships with other organisations. This role is particularly important for:

  • ensuring that projects objectives are drafted for agreement by the promoter and relevant financial and statutory authorities;

  • obtaining advice on the probable cost of the project and possible sources of finances;


  • planning for site selection and acquisitions; and their relationships

  • planning for public consultations and representation at public enquiries;

  • preparing the project strategy and planning for appointment of the larger team and the systems needed for the next stages of the project.

  • Depending upon the size, importance and risk of a project, the role of project manager is not necessarily a separate job from other work. The project manager may be, for instance, the consulting engineer appointed to investigate and report on the proposed project; alternatively, he may be an employee of the promoter or a specialist in project management.


  • It is quite normal practice for the project manager to select and appoint the project team, but in some instances the promoter is the one who appoint this team on the advice of the project manager.

  • An important task for the project manager is to ensure that the

    promoter defines the objectives for the project and agrees a project

    strategy or brief to guide the next stage of work.

    This brief should state:

  • promoter’s objectives and priorities;

  • the manner in which consultants and other resources are to be employed;

  • an outline programme and budget, setting dates and cost targets for the investigations and design studies needed for the feasibility study.

  • The brief should be designed to guide investigation and evolution of alternative engineering schemes that appear on initial consideration to meet promoter’s needs. Cost-benefit studies, risk analyses and environmental impact assessments for each alternative will help.


The Designer select and appoint the

  • For any but the smallest of buildings, a client has to ask for the service of a building design professional – by direct contact or by means of a competition - to whom he will hand over a design theme. This must include comprehensive data concerning the prospective building Once decided who the designer would be, the complex process of design can actually start.

  • In case of civil buildings (possibly in case of others buildings as well), it is quite obvious that the prime designer should be an architect. He helps to consolidate the client’s ideas about the new building and will cooperate with a group of engineering specialists to work out the entire project. Together they form the design team.


  • Depending on the practice existing in each country – and, often, on the particularities of the project too – there are several basic variants of organising the design activity:

  • Promoter (Client) Architect Engineering

    Specialists

    variant a)

  • Promoter (Client) Architect

    Engineering Specialists

    variant b)

  • Promoter (Client) Architect + Engineering

    Specialists

    variant c)


  • No matter the way in which the design process is organised, but depending on the nature and specific features of the building, the design team should incorporate in some manner – besides architect and structural engineer – service engineers specialised in:

  • climate services, including heating, ventilation and air – conditioningutility services, including: cool and hot water supply, sewage, rainwater drainage;

  • waste (rubbish) disposal;

  • electricity supply;

  • gas or liquid fuel supply; telecommunications;

  • mechanical transportation; special services (e.g. special lighting, acoustical treatments, security equipment etc).

  •  quantity surveyor, topographic survey engineer, geotechnical engineer, interior design architect, landscape architect, economist et al.

  • It is essential that the design team – i.e. architect, structural engineer, building services engineer and any other specialists – is brought together at the earliest possible moment, so that all its members can contribute to the final concept.


  • If effective but depending on the nature and specific features of the building, the design team should incorporate in some manner – besides architect and structural engineer – service engineers specialised in:communication is to be maintained between the members of the design team, it is essential that each members proceeds to a closely related level of detail at any time, if not there will be a negative effect on design co-ordination.

  • A well-organised information flow in both senses established between the participants in the design process from the early stages of the project will certainly enhance the results of the entire activity.

  • One should also point out the beneficial effects of true co-operation and mutual understanding between the members of the design team, in relations with the requirements, technical conditions, limitations and restrictions proper to each speciality. This implies some basic knowledge of other’s profession. Certainly, an “engineer-minded” architect, as well as an “architect-minded” engineer, will reach without difficulty a reasonable compromise to solve any controversial problem in building design.


The contractor
The Contractor but depending on the nature and specific features of the building, the design team should incorporate in some manner – besides architect and structural engineer – service engineers specialised in:

  • The contractor’s activity translates into the material world, at full scalethe designer’s work which reflects and interprets promoter’s ideas and requirements about the building he intents to achieve.

  • Accordingly, the contractor has to be in quite permanent contact with the designer, from the very beginning till the completion of the building. Both parties must develop close co-operative relationships, in order to solve in the best possible manner all technical matters normally encountered during the construction process, as well as any possible unforeseen problems.

  • Current technological solutions and details are in contractor’s responsibility. In special cases - particular and/or difficult site conditions, unusual building features, new materials, products and/or construction techniques to be applied, requirements or conditions well above standard specifications etc – the problems must be thoroughly examined and solved by a co-operative effort of contractor and designer from the earliest stage of the construction process.


  • General contractors but depending on the nature and specific features of the building, the design team should incorporate in some manner – besides architect and structural engineer – service engineers specialised in: are those who, on account of their resources and experience, are able to undertake the responsibility as main contractor for the construction of the entire project, although they may sub-let parts of the work to specialists or trade contractors. This specialisation enables them to employ skilled staff and plant machinery particularly suited to their work. In some cases their design and techniques are protected by patents.

  • A specialist contractor usually performs his work by sub-contract to a general contractor who will take a co-ordination role.


The User but depending on the nature and specific features of the building, the design team should incorporate in some manner – besides architect and structural engineer – service engineers specialised in:

  • Being positioned at the end of the chain, the user of a building is actually the beneficiary of the activity performed by promoter (client), designer and contractor. Since the building is meant to be in service (exploitation) a very long period of time, it is quite natural for it to have a succession of users. These are in a position to make a continuous and more or less objective evaluation of building’s performances and shortcomings over the years, to express their opinions about the degree to what their requirements and expectations are fulfilled.

  • No matter the kind of relations existing between the user and the

    owner of a building – but, obviously, with different specific

    responsibilities as established by the regulations in force – they are

    involved during its entire period of service to rather a continuous

    activity of maintenance and current repair. This is absolutely

    necessary in order to ensure an adequate durability of the building,

    which is mainly expressed by its ability to maintain performance levels

    as close as possible to the initial values.


  • When a change of building users occurs, especially if there is also a

    change in the profile of their activity, it is a rather common practice to

    carry out some rehabilitation/refurbishment works. Occasionally,

    such works are needed at certain moments during the building life, in

    order to remove wearing or decay effects and thus to improve

    functional performances

  • When there is evidence of decrease of structural performances, as wellas in cases of structural damage caused by exceptional events (such as earthquakes, fire, large ground settlements, flood, etc..), strengthening works are required. In most cases, they have to be accompanied by some kind of refurbishment, since non-structural elements, finishes and installations are inevitably affected by the operations of structural strengthening.


  • There are recommendations or even – in case of important buildings,special site or/and exploitation conditions - compulsory regulations to monitor in-situ behaviour of buildings, mostly from the structural viewpoint. This kind of activity includes from simple, casual observations to survey

    and recording (settlements, deformations, cracking,) on a permanent basis, by means of more or less

    sophisticated topometric means.


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