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Homing Missile Guidance and Control at JHU/APL. SAE Aerospace Control & Guidance Systems Committee Meeting #97 March 1-3, 2006. Uday J. Shankar, Ph. D. Air & Missile Defense Department 240-228-8037; [email protected] Abstract.

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Homing missile guidance and control at jhu apl

Homing Missile Guidance and Control at JHU/APL

SAE Aerospace Control & Guidance Systems Committee Meeting #97

March 1-3, 2006

Uday J. Shankar, Ph. D.

Air & Missile Defense Department

240-228-8037; [email protected]


Abstract
Abstract

This presentation discusses the GNC research at the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Group at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is one of five institutions at the Johns Hopkins University. APL is a not-for-profit research organization with about 3600 employees (68% scientists and engineers). Our annual revenue is on the order of $670m. The Air and Missile Defense Department is a major department of APL involved with the defense of naval and joint forces from attacking aircraft, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles.

The major thrust of the GNC group is the guidance, navigation, and control of missiles. Our mission is to Integrate sensor data, airframe and propulsion capabilities to meet mission objectives. We are involved with GNC activities in the concept stage (design, requirements analysis, algorithm development), detailed design (hardware, software), and flight test (pre-flight predictions, post-flight analysis, failure investigation).

The Advanced Systems section within the GNC group is involved with several projects: boost-phase interception of ballistic missiles, discrimination-coupled guidance for midcourse intercepts, Standard Missile GNC engineering, Kill Vehicle engineering, integrated guidance control, swarm-on-swarm guidance, and rapid prototyping of GNC algorithms and hardware.

We discuss two examples. The first is the swarm-on-swarm guidance. This framework can be used to solve guidance problems associated with several missile defense scenarios. The second is the application of dynamic-game guidance solutions. This has applications in terminal guidance of a boost-phase interceptor and the discrimination-coupled guidance of terminal homing of a midcourse interceptor.

We discuss in more detail the problem of terminal guidance of a boost-phase interceptor. The problem is formulated and a closed-form solution is offered.

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Divisions of the johns hopkins university
Divisions ofThe Johns Hopkins University

School of Arts & Sciences

Whiting School of Engineering

School of Professional Studies in Business & Education

School of Hygiene & Public Health

School of Medicine

School of Nursing

Applied Physics Laboratory

Nitze School of Advanced International Studies

Peabody Institute

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Profile of the applied physics laboratory

Not-for-profit university research & development laboratory

Division of the Johns Hopkins University founded in 1942

On-site graduate engineering program in 8 degree fields

Staffing: 3,600 employees (68% scientists & engineers)

Annual revenue ~ $ 670M

Profile of theApplied Physics Laboratory

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Air missile defense advancing readiness effectiveness of us military forces
Air & Missile DefenseAdvancing Readiness & Effectiveness of US Military Forces

Key Programs:

  • Cooperative Engagement Capability

  • Ballistic Missile Defense

  • Standard Missile

  • AEGIS

  • Area Air Defense Commander

  • Ship Self Defense

Critical Challenge 1: Defend naval & joint forces from opposing aircraft, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles

Critical Challenge 2:Optimally deploy & employ multiple weapons systems to maximize defense of critical assets such as military forces, civilian population centers, airfields & ports in overseas theaters & in the United States

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Gnc group roles

Concept

Development

Detailed

Design

Flight

Testing

  • System concept trade studies

  • GNC requirements analyses

  • Algorithm research

  • Real-time distributed

  • simulation

  • Component modeling

  • 6 DOF development & verification

  • GNC algorithm development

  • Stability analysis

  • Flight control hardware testing

  • Evaluation of missile electrical systems

  • System performance analyses

  • Distributed simulation

  • Hardware-in-the-loop

  • Preflight performance prediction

  • Post-flight evaluation

  • Failure Investigation

GNC Group: Roles

GPS

Other

Sensors

Guidance &

Navigation

Solution

Guidance

Law

Airframe/

Propulsion

Flight

Control

Target

Motion

Missile

Seeker*

Primary Responsibilities

Missile

Motion

Cooperative Efforts

Autopilot

Loop

Inertial

Sensors

Homing

Loop

* Primary responsibility for seeker dynamics and radome effects

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Gnc group current efforts

Standard Missile to Meet Mission Objectives

Discrimination-Coupled Guidance

  • SM-3 Development

    • INS/GPS analysis

    • Flight control improvements

    • 21” Standard Missile

  • SM-6/Future Missile Studies

    • Inflight alignment

    • GNC studies

  • Flight Test

    • 6 DOF replication

    • Failure investigation

    • Hardware fault insertion

RV, Booster, ACS, Jammer, Decoys, …

Contain Likely RV Objects within FOV

Boost-Phase Intercept Studies

and GNC Algorithm Research

Maneuver to Keep Likely Objects Within Divert Capability

Predicted Intercept Point Uncertainty Basket

  • Terminal Homing

  • Optimize KV fuel usage

  • Satisfy hit requirements

Threat Launch Point

  • Flyout Guidance

  • Fixed-interval guidance

  • Minimize KV handover errors despite highly uncertain PIP

KV G&C

  • SM-3 Kill Vehicle

    • Flight test performance assessment

    • ACS design options

    • Advanced pintle 6 DOF, G&C design

Radar Track

  • Intercept Point Prediction

  • Uncertain boost profile and temporal events

Integrated Guidance & Control (IGC)

Target

Motion

Swarm-on-Swarm Guidance and Control Research

Sensor / detector element

Sensor / detector element

Autopilot

Engager Swarm

Lethal footprint

Track

Track

Airframe /

Propulsion

Target

Sensors

Rapid GNC Prototyping

Guidance

Law

Guidance

Filter

CVBG (Raid) Defense

Designate

Designate

Rapid Prototype Testbed

Mitigate Raid Attack Vulnerability via Cooperative Missiles

Analysis Simulation (not real-time)

Sensor

Signals

Fin

Commands

G&C Real-time

Implementation

G&C

Algorithms

Inertial

Navigation

Missile

Motion

Processor 1

via dynamic-game optimization

Asset

Sensor

Signals

Fin

Commands

6-DOF

Airframe, Sensor &

Environment Models

Expected benefit of employing cooperative missile swarms is increased performance robustness and mission flexibility

Remaining

6-DOF

(real-time)

CG

PC or UNIX processor

CVN

ASCM

Processor 2

GNC Group: Current Efforts

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Example gnc research at apl

Example GNC Research at APL to Meet Mission Objectives


Cooperative multi interceptor guidance

Sea-Surface Asymmetric Adversaries (S to Meet Mission Objectives2A2)

Multi-KV for BPI

Mini-Missiles

Effect A Volume Kill Via Increased Control Space

Threat Trajectory Uncertainty

Manage Information Uncertainty via Increased Control Space

Speedboat Attacker Swarm

Short time to ID & negate threat

CVBG (Raid) Defense

Threat Launch Point

Modified Aegis Platform

Overhead Asset

Mitigate Raid Attack Vulnerability via Cooperative Missiles

MaRV

CVN

CG

ASCM

Cooperative Multi-Interceptor Guidance

Swarm-Guidance: Expected Benefits

  • Eased centralized control requirements

    - Remove “chokepoints, delays, etc.

  • Reactive flexibility / adaptation to threats

  • Scalability (response insensitive to #s)

  • Near-simultaneous swarm negation

    • Minimize chaotic threat response to being engaged

    • Rapid battle-damage assessment and 2nd-salvo response

Swarm-guidance: Guide multiple cooperative missile interceptors to negate one or more incoming threats (“Swarm-on-swarm”)

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Ballistic missile defense challenges

Notional Sea-Based Boost-Phase Intercept Scenario to Meet Mission Objectives

Predicted Intercept Point Uncertainty Basket

Notional Midcourse-Phase Intercept Scenario

Predicted Intercept Point Uncertainty Basket

  • Terminal Guidance - End Game

    • Aimpoint Selection

    • Satisfy Hit Requirements

  • Terminal Homing

  • Optimize KV fuel usage

  • Satisfy hit requirements

Threat Launch Point

  • Terminal Guidance

    • Contain likely objects within FOV

    • Volume / object commit

    • Maximize containment

  • Flyout Guidance

  • Fixed-interval guidance

  • Minimize KV handover errors despite highly uncertain PIP

  • Flyout Guidance

    • Cluster / volume commit

    • PIP refinement / IFTU

    • Energy / pulse management

Radar Track

  • Intercept Point Prediction

  • Uncertain boost profile and temporal events

  • Engageability / launch solution

    • Predicted intercept point (PIP)

  • Boost-Phase Intercept Challenges

  • Compressed timelines

  • Uncertain threat trajectory, acceleration, staging events and burn-out times

  • Interceptor TVC has fixed maneuvering time ending before intercept occurs

  • Kill vehicle fuel and g limitations

  • Midcourse-Phase Intercept Challenges

  • Complex threat cluster(s) act to postpone identification of the lethal object

  • Discrimination quality improves with time

  • Divert capability decreases with time

  • Guidance must generate acceleration commands prior to localization of lethal object

Ballistic Missile Defense Challenges

Information uncertainty coupled with time and kinematic limitations pose substantial challenges to ballistic missile defense

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Boost phase bmd terminal homing
Boost-Phase to Meet Mission ObjectivesBMD:Terminal Homing

  • Improve guidance law zero-effort-miss estimation accuracy

    • This improves KV V and g-efficiency

  • Assume that the threat acceleration increases linearly

    • Improve on the APN concept versus a boosting threat

  • Solve a dynamic-game (DG) optimization formulation

    • DG framework provides robustness to threat acceleration uncertainty

    • Couples the control components of the guidance problem to estimation and prediction quality

    • Control is less sensitive to threat acceleration uncertainties

  • Accommodating threat burnout

    • Employ a burnout detection cue (from the seeker)

    • Use in estimation and guidance algorithms

  • Derive closed-form solutions

    • Prefer closed-form solutions to numerical solutions

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Bpi terminal guidance solution

Terminal Miss Performance Weight to Meet Mission Objectives

Terminal Miss

Control

Uncertainties

General structure of the control solution

Control Riccati Equation Solution

EstimationUncertainty

Dynamic Game Filter

RelativePosition

RelativeVelocity

ThreatAcceleration

ThreatJerk

GuidanceLaw

BPI Terminal Guidance Solution

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Thank You! to Meet Mission Objectives

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