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環境倫理學. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學 環境 與生態學院 生態科學與技術學系 . 環境倫理. T00. 簡介:環境倫理與哲學 Part I 倫理與科學 T01. 道德哲學 (moral philosophy) :理性與感性 T02. 道德考量 (moral consideration) :倫理與科學 T03. 倫理與經濟:公有財 (The Common Good) Part II 倫理推定 (presumptions) 的建構與驗證 T04. 責任 (duty) :自然和未來世代

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鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學

環境 與生態學院生態科學與技術學系


  • T00. 簡介:環境倫理與哲學

  • Part I 倫理與科學

    • T01. 道德哲學(moral philosophy):理性與感性

    • T02. 道德考量(moral consideration):倫理與科學

    • T03. 倫理與經濟:公有財 (The Common Good)

  • Part II 倫理推定(presumptions)的建構與驗證

    • T04. 責任 (duty):自然和未來世代

    • T05. 品性 (character):生態美德

    • T06. 關係 (relationships):同理心與正直

    • T07. 權利 (rights):人類與動物

    • T08. 後果 (consequences):預測未來

  • Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


    • Part III 自然學習 (Learning from Nature)

      • T09. 生活:可持續消費

      • T10. 環境政策:政府、機構和NGOs

      • T11. 健康環境:空氣與水

      • T12. 農業:土地與食物

      • T13. 公有地:適應式管理

      • T14. 城鄉生態學:綠色建構

      • T15. 氣候變遷:全球溫化

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    T06 relationships empathy and integrity

    Part II 倫理推定(presumptions)的建構與驗證

    T06. 關係(relationships):同理心 (empathy) and正直 (integrity)

    鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學

    環境 與生態學院生態科學與技術學系

    T06 relationships empathy and integrity1
    T06. 關係(relationships):同理心 (empathy) and正直 (integrity)

    責任 (Duty)


    Right action



    權利 (Rights)






    Being good







    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    T06 relationships empathy and integrity2
    T06. 關係(relationships):同理心 (empathy) and正直 (integrity)

    • We can and do exist in relationships with our natural surroundings, and any abstract ethical theory that ignores that will be inadequate.

    • Evidence from biology that empathy evolved in primates

    • The environmental standard of ecosystem integrity is recognized by law as well as science.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    T06 relationships empathy and integrity3
    T06. 關係(relationships):同理心 (empathy) and正直 (integrity)

    • 6.1. empathy is natural

    • 6.2. culture and human nature

    • 6.3. deep ecology

    • 6.4. ecofeminism: a social ecology

    • 6.5. ecological integrity

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    6 1 empathy is natural
    6.1 Empathy is natural

    • After fights between two combatants, other chimpanzees would console the loser.

    • Chimpanzees, who cannot swim, have drowned in zoo moats trying to save others.

    • Given the chance to get food by pulling a chain that would also deliver an electric shock to a companion, rhesus monkeys will starve themselves for several days.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Mirror neurons
    Mirror neurons

    • Monkeys, like humans, have mirror neurons in their brains that enable them to experience what another monkey is experiencing.

    • Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of the human brain reduces a person’s empathy.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Mirror neurons1
    Mirror neurons

    • A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.

    • Such neurons have been directly observed in primate and other species including birds.

    • Mirror neurons were first described in 1992.

    • to be one of the most important recent discoveries in neuroscience.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Mirror neurons2
    Mirror neurons

    • The first animal in which mirror neurons have been studied individually is the macaque monkey.

    • Mirror neurons are believed to mediate the understanding of other animals' behavior.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Mirror neurons3
    Mirror neurons

    • Brain imaging experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the human inferior frontal cortex and superior parietal lobe is active when the person performs an action and also when the person sees another individual performing an action.

    • It has been suggested that these brain regions contain mirror neurons, and they have been defined as the human mirror neuron system.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Empathy binds us
    Empathy binds us

    • Empathy is natural in human development and important for doing ethics.

      • Humans understand as morality arose among primates living in social groups.

      • Ethics has its roots in evolution.

    • We have evolved as a species with a brain containing mirror neurons that directly link us to other persons (and also to members of some other species).

      • Empathy is what binds us in our relationships and enables us to feel what others are feeling.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Ethics of care
    Ethics of care

    • Empathy moves us to involve those who care for us, when we make an ethical decision, instead of simply following a moral rule or calculating the likely consequences of acting on our decision.

    • Caring, empathy, feeling with others, being sensitive to each other’s feelings, all would be better guides to what morality requires in actual contexts than may abstract rules of reason, or rational calculation, or at least will enrich our moral ethical reflection.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    6 2 culture and human nature
    6.2 culture and human nature

    • Like other primates, we are social animals.

    • Our culturallife, however, although natural for us, set us apart from nature.

      • We continue to live in the natural world, but in our cultural lives transcend (超越) the natural world.

    • Human culture is also marked by diversity.

      • Indigenous culture

      • Buddhist culture

      • Modern culture

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Indigenous culture
    Indigenous culture

    • Buffalo Woman in native American.

    • A buffalo hunter finds and falls in love with a woman, who says she comes from the Buffalo Nation.

    • They marry and she bears him a son.

    • She leaves to return to her relatives, because members of his tribe mistreat the woman and her son.

    • The hunter tracts his family to a large herd………..

    • The hunter turns to be a young buffalo.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Buffalo woman
    Buffalo Woman

    • The story suggest that the line distinguishing humans from other animals is ambiguous and may be crossed by empathy and imagination.

    • A Sioux boy was taught by his grandparents…..

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    A sioux boy
    A Sioux boy

    • To shoot your four-legged brother in his hind area, slowing it down but not killing it. Then, take the four legged’s head in your hands, and look into his eyes. Look into your brother’s eyes and feel his pain.

    • Then, take your knife and cut the four-legged under his chin, so that he dies quickly. Ask your brother, the four-legged, for forgiveness for what you do.

    • Thanks to your four-legged kin for offering his body to you when you need food to eat and clothing to wear.

    • Promise that you will put yourself back into earth when you die, to become nourishment for the earth……..

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Buddhist culture
    Buddhist culture

    • The dharma (達摩):Buddha teachings(法)

    • The sangha (僧伽):簡稱為僧,意譯為僧眾、僧團、教團、和合眾。佛教術語,意指由佛教出家僧侶所組成的團體,也可用於泛指所有的佛教僧侶(出家眾、出家人)。

      • 六道輪迴

      • 八正道與無漏三學

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


    • 三善道

      • 天堂道:受勝妙果報之所。

      • 人間道:人類之生所,能稍修戒善感報而生。

      • 修羅道:大力神之生所。因常懷嗔心而好鬥,故以深山幽谷為所,與人隔離。

    • 三惡道

      • 畜生道:禽獸之生所。多以人界為依所,而眼可見。

      • 餓鬼道:求飯食之鬼類生處,與人界共處,但眼不可見。

      • 地獄道:惡人受苦痛之處,在地下受八熱八寒之苦。

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


    • 八正道(梵語:Ārya 'ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ)

      • 佛教徒修行達到涅槃的八種方法和途徑。

      • 戒:正語言、正行為、正職業、正精進

      • 定:正意念、正禪定

      • 慧:正見解、正思想

    • 三學:「戒、定、慧」

      • 無漏三學是佛法的總綱,學佛的必修科目。

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Modern culture
    Modern culture

    • Our culture emphasizes human relationships, rather then our relationship with nature.

    • We do not think of ourselves as human animals and of nonhuman animals as “person”.

    • We eat hamburgers without any concern for the suffering of cattle in feedlots and slaughterhouses.

    • We have pets, visit wild animals in zoos, and watch nature shows on television, but we live apart from wild animals.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Modern culture1
    Modern culture

    • We are beginning to understand that biodiversity is required for healthy ecosystems.

      • Yet, we are doing very little to preserve natural habitats, and we rely on chemicals to rid our homes and gardens of organisms that we identify as pests and weeds.

      • Our life is largely urban, and we live apart from the animals we consume as food.

    • Modern form of human culture has altered the natural environment almost everywhere, so that the survival and well-being of wildlife now requires careful management.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    6 3 deep ecology
    6.3 Deep ecology

    • Reject modern culture.

      • The cause of the environmental crisis is in the dominant world view of Western culture, which they claim values only the human use and consumption of natural resources.

    • Accepts the “unity of humans, plants, animals, and the Earth”.

    • Biocentric equality:all organisms are equal in intrinsic worth.

      • Yet, the claim of equal worth for all organisms is hardly self-evident.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


    • 人類和其他生物,本體就具有「價值」。

    • 生物多樣性,有助於這些生物價值的「實現」。

    • 人類沒有權利減少生物多樣性,除非是為維持人類的基本需求。

    • 人口宜少,不宜過多。

    • 人類對其他生物已經造成過度干擾,且持續惡化。

    • 政策必要改變,包含經濟、科技和意識形態三者結構性的改變。

    • 意識形態的改變,對生活品質(life quality)的讚賞(基於生物的天賦價值),而不是追求更高的生活享受。大(bigness) vs. 偉大(greatness)

    • 認同上述觀點者,都有義務參與推動改革。

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    6 4 ecofeminism a social ecology
    6.4. ecofeminism: a social ecology

    • We can only improve our relationship with nature by changing the way we live together as men and women.

    • Women must see that there can be no liberation for them and on solution to the ecological crisis within a society whose fundamental model of relationships continues to be one of domination.

    • Ecofeminists point to a number of ways in which environmental degradation causes a decrease in the quality of life for women, children, and people of color.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    A social ecology
    A Social ecology

    • Ecofeminism is a social ecology.

    • It recognizes the twindominations of women and nature as social problems rooted both in very concrete, historical, socioeconomic circumstances.

    • Nurturing healthy relationships with others, and with nature, should be our goal.

    • The primary aims of ecofeminism are not the same as those typically associated with liberal feminism, for ecofeminists do not seek equality with men as such, but aim for a liberation of women as women.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Ethical presumptions
    Ethical presumptions

    • Men have as much potential as women to adopt a deeper environmental awareness, but they will need to work harder to fully embrace those values.

    • We should be suspicious of the language of domination, address feminist and ecological issues together, and support the rights of women to make their own decisions.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    6 5 ecological integrity
    6.5. ecological integrity

    • Aldo Leopold, a Land ethic (土地倫理)

    • A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.

    • Not all moral philosophers agree that beauty can serve as a standard for ethical decisions about the environment, and some argue that stability does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of ecosystems.

    • But integrity is now a standard for measuring the health of an environment.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


    • The law has begun to protect ecological integrity.

      • In 1972 the US and Canada agreed to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement(GLWQA), which was renewed in 1978 and amended by a protocol in 1987.

    • The current version of the GLWQA states:

      • The purpose of the Parties is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.

    • The 1972 US Clean Water Act affirms ecosystem integrity.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

    Ecological integrity
    Ecological integrity

    • Is defined in terms of “three facets of the self-organization of ecological systems:

      • (a) current wellbeing (health)

      • (b) resiliency

      • (c) capacity to develop, regenerate, and evolve.

    Ayo Env. Ethics 2011


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