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Profiles of Female and Serious Juvenile Offenders in Hawaii. Lisa Pasko Juvenile Justice Research Analyst, Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division, Department of the Attorney General. Pathways to Delinquency. Low school achievement/alienation from school

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Profiles of female and serious juvenile offenders in hawaii

Profiles of Female and Serious Juvenile Offenders in Hawaii

Lisa Pasko

Juvenile Justice Research Analyst,

Crime Prevention and

Justice Assistance Division,

Department of the Attorney General


Pathways to delinquency
Pathways to Delinquency

  • Low school achievement/alienation from school

  • Poor parental supervision

  • Child physical and sexual abuse, neglect

  • Depression, suicidal ideation, self injury, and other mental health disorders

  • Exposure to domestic violence

  • Parental substance abuse and criminal history

  • Poverty

  • Susceptibility to peer pressure

  • Substance use

  • High-delinquency-rate schools

  • High crime neighborhoods


Study objectives
Study Objectives

  • Identify gender-specific risk factors of the female juvenile offender

  • Discuss variables that girl and boy offenders have in common

  • Identify risk factors that are predictive of serious juvenile offending

  • Examine predictive factors for detention and commitment to the Hawaii Youth Correctional Facility (HYCF)


Methods
Methods

  • Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) offense data and Family Court records were used.

  • 271 Family Court case files were analyzed.

  • The studies included low-level probationers (one or two offenses), more chronic offenders (three or more offenses, history of detainment) and juveniles at the most serious end of the spectrum (those committed to the HYCF).

  • The samples were weighted according to Circuit Court and gender (probation).

  • The studies examined academic, psychological, family, peer group, and drug use characteristics.


National and state comparisons
National and State Comparisons

  • Boys and girls in Hawaii have lower than national average proportions of arrests for assault, disorderly conduct, curfew, larceny-theft, and drug violations.

  • Boys and girls in Hawaii have much higher than national average proportions of arrests for runaway (43% versus 18% of all juvenile arrests).

  • Girls have conspicuously lower rates than the national average for the proportion of larceny-theft arrests (21% versus 10% of arrests)



When controlling for all offense and offender demographic characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, county), what factors predict adjudication?


When controlling for offense and offender specific variables, the strongest predictors of adjudication include (in order):

  • Arrest for robbery

  • Arrest for sex assault (first or second degree)

  • Arrest for felony theft

  • Arrest for UCPV

  • Arrest for family abuse

  • Arrest for dangerous drug


Predictors that decrease a juvenile s chance of being adjudicated include
Predictors that decrease a juvenile’s chance of being adjudicated include:

  • County residence (from Maui)

  • Gender (female)

  • Arrests for truancy or curfew


In hawaii in 2005 girls were
In Hawaii in 2005, girls were: adjudicated include:

* 41% of police referrals to Family Court

* 37% of non-police referrals (DOE, DAG, etc.)

* 32% of youth found responsible (adjudicated)

* 30% of juveniles placed on probation

* 50% of juveniles placed on protective supervision due to status offenses




Race and ethnic composition of the case file data
Race and Ethnic Composition adjudicated include:of the Case File Data:

  • Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (43%), Caucasians (16%), Filipinos/as (14%), and Samoans (7%) comprise the majority of the sample.

  • 64% are from Oahu, 19% from the Big Island, and roughly 9% each from Kauai and Maui.

  • 42% of the sample are girls.


Gender and abuse and sexuality variables
Gender and Abuse and adjudicated include:Sexuality Variables

  • 50% of girls and 41% of boys had histories of physical abuse.

  • 58% of girls and 42% of boys were witness to domestic violence.

  • 38% of girls’ files and 8% of boys’ files contained records of sexual abuse.

  • 38% of the girls’ files reported some form of risky sexual behavior.

  • 21% of the boys’ files reported aggressive sexual behavior.


Gender and mental health variables
Gender and Mental adjudicated include:Health Variables

  • 70% of both boys and girls have an Axis I psychological diagnosis.

  • Nearly 35% of girls (compared to 12% of boys) have at least one prior suicide attempt recorded in their case file.

  • 28% of girls’ files have records of self-injury (5% boys).


Gender and psychological diagnoses
Gender and adjudicated include:Psychological Diagnoses

  • 28% of girls’ and 14% of boys’ case files contained records of depression.

  • 23% of boys’ and 7% of girls’ case files had records of ADHD.

  • 19% of boys’ and 13% of girls’ case files had records of Conduct Disorder.


Peer group and school variables
Peer Group and adjudicated include:School Variables

  • 63% of the entire sample are certified as special education (67% boys and 59% girls).

  • 77% have failed academically.

  • 83% have negative peer groups

  • 13% claim gang affiliation.

  • 81% are chronic truants.

  • Almost 40% of the girls’ files report “associations” with men at least five years their senior.


Drug use by gender
Drug Use, by Gender adjudicated include:

  • 40% of the total sample are frequent drug users (36% girls vs. 43% boys).

  • 75% report some form of drug use, and 78% report alcohol use in their lifetimes.


Gender and drug use cont
Gender and Drug Use adjudicated include:(cont.)

  • 45% of girls, compared to 28% of boys, have tried ice.

  • 23% of the girls, compared to 17% of the boys, are frequent ice users.

  • 76% of the boys and 73% of the girls have tried marijuana.

  • 37% of the boys and 21% of the girls are frequent marijuana users.


Family variables
Family Variables adjudicated include:

  • 1 in 10 experienced death of at least one parent.

  • 1 in 2 has had a parent involved in the criminal justice system.

  • 1 in 4 has been placed in a foster care home (not hanai or extended family).

  • 41% have no contact with their father; 19% have no contact with their mother.

  • Almost 1 in 3 has a family history of suicide/mental illness.


The strongest predictors of runaway arrests include
The strongest predictors of runaway arrests include: adjudicated include:

  • Gender (female)

  • Oahu residence

  • Multiple property arrests

  • Frequent drug use

  • Suicidal ideation


When comparing hycf girls to non hycf girls the likelihood of these factors increases
When comparing HYCF girls to non-HYCF girls, the likelihood of these factors increases:

  • History of neglect and/or sexual abuse

  • History of foster care placements (not hanai or extended family)

  • Relationships with older men

  • Self-injury


When comparing hycf girls to non hycf girls the likelihood of these factors increases1
When comparing HYCF girls to non-HYCF girls, the likelihood of these factors increases:

  • Frequent ice use

  • Risky sexual behavior, including prostitution

  • Negative peer group

  • Academic failure (all of the HYCF girls in the sample had failed academically)


Boys: of these factors increases:

  • More likely to be arrested for assault or harassment

  • More likely to engage in sexually aggressive and physically assaultive behaviors

  • More likely to have ADHD or conduct disorders (rather than depression)

  • More likely to be certified as special education

  • More likely to be a frequent marijuana user


Both boys and girls
Both boys and girls: of these factors increases:

  • Equally likely to have failed academically or to be chronic truants

  • Experienced death of at least one parent

  • Have parents who abuse drugs or alcohol

  • Have used marijuana and alcohol


Profile of the female juvenile offender
Profile of the Female of these factors increases:Juvenile Offender

  • More likely to be arrested for status offenses, most particularly running away

  • More likely to have tried ice

  • More likely to have histories of trauma

  • More likely to have suicidal ideation and previous suicide attempts

  • More likely to experience depression/PTSD and engage in self-injury


Profile of the serious juvenile offender

Profile of the Serious of these factors increases:Juvenile Offender

Continuum used:

Probation>>>Detention>>>HYCF


Statistically Significant of these factors increases:

Predictors of Detention


Predicting detention
Predicting Detention: of these factors increases:

  • Juvenile resides on Oahu

  • Number of felony offenses

  • Number of property offenses

  • Number of status offenses

  • Age of first arrest

  • Frequent drug user, especially frequent ice use

  • Current or prior suicidal ideation

  • Academic Failure


HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors of these factors increases:

** p<.01


HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors of these factors increases:

** p<.01


HYCF Commitment, by Selected Risk Factors of these factors increases:

* p<.05


Predicting hycf commitment
Predicting HYCF Commitment of these factors increases:

  • Number of felony offenses

  • Number of status offenses

  • Total number of offenses

  • Frequent drug user

  • Frequent Ice user

  • Academic Failure

  • Risky sexual behavior

  • Parental involvement

  • Gender


Hycf versus detention
HYCF versus Detention: of these factors increases:

  • Number of felony arrests, number of status arrests, and frequent drug use predict both.

  • Gender, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior predict HYCF commitment.

  • Current or prior suicidal ideation predicts Detention.


The serious juvenile offender
The serious juvenile offender: of these factors increases:

  • Isusually male

  • Has more overall arrests

  • Has more felony arrests and a higher number of status and property arrests

  • Has more frequent marijuana and ice use

  • More likely to have experienced the death of a significant other

  • More likely to have an absent mother

  • More likely to have a history of neglect

  • More likely to have failed academically

  • More likely to have a conduct disorder diagnosis


Serious versus not as serious juvenile offenders
Serious versus “Not As Serious” Juvenile Offenders of these factors increases:

  • Equally likely to be certified special education

  • Equally likely to have diagnoses of ADHD or Depression

  • Equally likely to have witnessed domestic violence and experienced physical abuse

  • Equally likely to have parents with criminal histories and/or who use drugs and/or alcohol, or to have other family members in the justice system


C onclusion
C of these factors increases:onclusion

  • Academic failure is a salient risk factor for both female juvenile offenders and serious juvenile offenders.

  • Frequent ice use significantly increases the odds for Detention and HYCF commitment.

  • Previous or current suicidal ideation and risky sexual behavior are also risk factors for Detention/HYCF commitment, particularly for girls.


For more information
For more information: of these factors increases:

The Female Juvenile Offender in Hawaii

and

The Serious Juvenile Offender in Hawaii

Reports can be found at

hawaii.gov/ag/cpja


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