Innovation, open labour markets and brokerage opportunities for knowledge workers in China’s ICT sector. Matias Ramirez [email protected] Peter Dickenson DIME workshop “ Distributed networks and the knowledge-based economy ” , Juan-le Pins , 10 th -11 th May 2007.
Innovation, open labour markets and brokerage opportunities for knowledge workers in China’s ICT sector
DIME workshop “Distributed networks and the knowledge-based economy”, Juan-le Pins, 10th-11th May 2007
1.Intra-firm knowledge transfer: strategic resource-based view
Building unique intangible resource and employment practices to promote intra-organisational knowledge sharing, complementarity of HR practices.
(Ichniowski et al 1997, Osterman 1994, Huselid 1995, Becker and Gerhart 1996Kleinknecht et at 1997, Michie and Sheehan 2000, Michie and Sheenhan 2003)
2. Inter-firm knowledge transfer in the knowledge (networked) economy:
A. Inter-firm knowledge transfer and collaboration through firm level networks(Marshall etc) and/or networks of knowledge workers.
Development of a division of labour associated with working on the boundary of the firm: Gatekeeping, boundary spanning, specialised services (Coleman 1988, Lesser 2000, Grabher 2004, Casper 2005).
Networks of knowledge workers can be closely linked to concepts of social capital and particularly socio-centric networks linked to knowledge brokers activities (Burt 2005).
B. Emphasis on inter-firm mobility (in Anglo-Saxon clusters at least) and flexible careers. Intermediary institutions at cluster level facilitate flexible contracts, matching skills and entrepreneurial opportunities. (OECD 2001, Saxenian 1994, 1996, Arthur and Rousseau 1996).
Inter-organisational problem solving
Sharing knowledge with research institutes
Sharing knowledge with founder bodies
Sharing knowledge with standard setting bodies
Relational problem solving
Sharing knowledge with former classmates
Sharing knowledge with colleagues
External communication via chat rooms etc
Informal contact with external acquaintances
Inter-organisational problem solving
Benefits from collaboration with suppliers, customers, research institutes, academic institutes and joint ventures. Division of labour includes boundary spanners bridging cognitive gaps (Leonard Barton 1995).
Networking that relies on personal relations of knowledge workers and ties of individuals knowledge workers. Also lowers cost of mobility. “Embeddedness” of labour markets (Macdonald and Piekkari, 2005, Casper 2005, Granovetter (1988, 1995). Lowers the cost of labour mobility and may help innovation, but knowledge belongs to employee.
Search and scan activity (Allen 1979, Leonard-Barton 1995, Macdonald 1994, Bucher 2003) associated with learning and understanding latest technologies, managerial techniques, potential for alliances and benchmarking and gate keeping activity.
IOPS and REL: Some/very influential in innovation project SCAN : Moderately/very important source of learning
Source: R&D employees
Earnings Function:W= constant+a1EXPi +a2 EXP2i+b1TENUREi +b2TENURE2i + c1Number of PREVIOUS JOBS + d1 SEN+d2 IOPS + d3 REL + d4 SCAN + f1 IOPS*SEN + f2REL*SEN +f3SCAN*SEN where:
W = gross monthly wage including bonuses. EXP = years prior experience to joining present firm,
TENURE = years in current firm,
SEN = level of seniority (we distinguish between manager/senior engineer and non-management technical/commercial).
IOPS = inter-organisational networking,
REL = relational networking,
SCAN = general networking.
interactive terms between seniority and different types of networking
Explanatory VariableStandardised Beta t Sig
EXPSQ -.120 -.937.350
SEN -.214 -1.302 .194
Number PREVIOUS JOBS .174 3.174.002**
IOPS .028 .506.613
REL -.028 -.504 .615
SCAN -.049 -.762 .447
SCAN*SEN .371 2.207 .028 **
IOPS*SEN .052 .445 .180
REL*SEN -.013 -.129.234
Dependent Variable: gross monthly wage plus bonuses.
R2=.253, adjusted R2=.229, F=4.872, Sig=.028 n=381
Innovation Success function:= constant+a1 Size +b1 Ownership+c1 SCAN + c2IOPS + c3REL where:Size = Number of employees Ownership = Dichotomous variables between cooperative enterprise and privately ownedScanningInter-organisational problem solvingRelational networking Dependent Variable sourced from Senior R&D managers, independent variables sourced from knowledge workers.
Explanatory Variable Standardised Beta t Sig
Constant 39.77 .00
Size -0.15 -1.32 0.18
Scan 0.24 2.14 0.03**
IOPS -.165 -1.54 0.13
REL -.12 -1.11 0.27
Dependent Variable: Success on innovation project as measured by degree of success in meeting deadlines, market
share and technical capability.
R2=.20, adjusted R2=.17, F=4.587, Sig=.036 n=71