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Skeletal System. Animal Science I Unit 5: Anatomy, Physiology and Absorption of Nutrients. Objectives. Name, locate and describe the functions of the parts of the skeletal systems of animals. Components of the Skeleton. Bones Cartilage Teeth Joints Fig 5-1, 5-2

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Skeletal system

Skeletal System

Animal Science I

Unit 5: Anatomy, Physiology and Absorption of Nutrients


Objectives
Objectives

  • Name, locate and describe the functions of the parts of the skeletal systems of animals.


Components of the skeleton
Components of the Skeleton

  • Bones

  • Cartilage

  • Teeth

  • Joints

  • Fig 5-1, 5-2

  • See p. 105 Major Differences Between Mammal and Avian Skeletal Systems

  • Quiz over beef skeleton on January 14


Cartilage
Cartilage

  • Tough connective tissue that is flexible and elastic

  • Forms the early skeletal structure of the embryo in vertebrate animals

  • As development occurs it is replaced by bone

  • Also found in

    • Joints

    • Trachea

    • Nose

    • Larynx

    • External ear

    • In the form of disc in the vertebral column


Bone composition
Bone Composition

  • Calcium compounds

  • Ossein

  • Small amounts of other minerals


Bone growth development
Bone Growth & Development

  • Start out as cartilage

  • Transformation is carried out by specialized cells that break down the cartilage and replace it with bone cells called osteocytes

  • Flat bones of the skull develop from membranes

  • By birth most of the cartilage has been replaced by bone

  • Secondary bone development and growth occur as the animal matures


Bone structure
Bone Structure

  • Contain blood, lymph vessels and nerve fibers

  • Grow and repair themselves if damaged

  • Some have hollow centers that are filled with marrow

  • Type of marrow found is a function of age


Bone marrow
Bone Marrow

  • Red Marrow

    • Forms blood cells

    • May only be found in animals with short life spans

  • Yellow, White, Gelatinous

    • Tend only to form in animals with life spans greater than 10 years


Bone marrow1
Bone Marrow

Red Bone Marrow


Functions of the skeletal system
Functions of the Skeletal System

  • Form

  • Protection

  • Support

  • Strength

  • With muscles attached act as the levers to allow movement

  • Store minerals

  • Bone marrow produces blood cells


Types of skeletal systems
Types of Skeletal Systems

Rigid

Hydraulic

Able to move by the application of force to a fluid confined in a small space and surrounded by muscle tissue

Worms, Octopus and Starfish

  • Able to move because muscles are attached

  • Two types

    • Endoskeleton-Vertebrate animals

    • Exoskeleton-insects, crustaceans


Kinds of bones
Kinds of Bones

Cancellous

Compact

Composed of Haversian systems and usually found on the outside of bones and surrounding marrow

Composed of cylindrical or tubular structures of hard, inorganic material arranged in concentric layers. In the center there is the Haversian canal through which blood vessels and nerves pass

Not found in small mammals or birds

Fig 5-3

  • Spongy

  • Generally found in the ends of long bones


Bone shape x
Bone Shape X

  • Long

  • Short

  • Flat

  • Irregular

  • Table 5-1


Parts of the skeletal system
Parts of the Skeletal System

  • Axial

    • Skull

    • Vertebral column

    • Rib cage

  • Pectoral limb

    • Front legs

  • Pelvic limb

    • Hind legs


Joints
Joints

  • Classifications are based on the structure of the joint and the movement it is capable of


Synarthroses fibrous joints
Synarthroses (fibrous) Joints

  • Joined by fibrous and in some cases cartilage tissue

  • Generally do not permit movement

  • Example:

    joints of the skull


Amphiarthroses cartiligionous joints
Amphiarthroses (Cartiligionous) Joints

  • Consists of discs of fibrous cartilage

  • Separate and cushion the vertebrae

  • Allow limited movement


Diarthroses synovial joints
Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints

  • Allow free movement

  • Have a fluid filled cavity

  • Surrounded by ligaments that hold the joint together

  • Synovial fluid membrane found inside the ligaments lubricates the joint

  • Classifications

    • Ball and socket

    • Gliding

    • Pivot

    • Hinge


Summary
Summary

  • Mammal skeletal system is composed of bone, cartilage, teeth and joints

  • Cartilage forms the early skeletal structure of the embryo

  • Bones are made up calcium compounds, ossein and small amounts of other minerals

  • As bones grow the cartilage that makes up the early skeletal structure is replaced with bone cells called osteocytes

  • Bones contain blood, lymph vessels and nerve fibers

  • Some bones have hollow centers that contain marrow


Summary1
Summary

  • Marrow may be red, yellow, white or gelatinous

  • The skeletal system provides form, protection, support and strength

  • Two types of skeletal structures-rigid and hydraulic

  • Two types of bones-cancellous and compact

  • 4 shapes of bones-long, short, flat and irregular

  • Skeleton is broken down into 3 parts-axial, pectoral limb, pelvic limb

  • Joints are classified based on their structure and type of movement


Assignment
Assignment

  • Discussion Questions 1-5 p.128


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