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POETRY. POETRY. A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas). POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY. POET The poet is the writer of the poem. SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the voice of the poem. POETRY FORM.

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Poetry1
POETRY

  • A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)


Point of view in poetry
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY

POET

The poet is the writer of the poem.

SPEAKER

The speaker of the poem is the voice of the poem.


Poetry form
POETRY FORM

  • FORM - the appearance of the words on the page

  • LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem

  • STANZA - a group of lines arranged together

  • A word is dead

  • When it is said,

  • Some say.

  • I say it just

  • Begins to live

  • That day.



Rhythm
RHYTHM

  • The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem

  • Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.


Rhyme
RHYME

  • Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.


End rhyme
END RHYME

  • A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line:

  • Hector the Collector

  • Collected bits of string.

  • Collected dolls with broken heads

  • And rusty bells that would not ring.


Rhyme scheme
RHYME SCHEME

  • A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).

  • Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)


Sample rhyme scheme
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME

  • The Germ by Ogden Nash

  • A mighty creature is the germ,

  • Though smaller than the pachyderm.

  • His customary dwelling place

  • Is deep within the human race.

  • His childish pride he often pleases

  • By giving people strange diseases.

  • Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?

  • You probably contain a germ.

a

a

b

b

c

c

a

a


Refrain
REFRAIN

  • A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.

  • “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’”


Alliteration
ALLITERATION

  • Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words

  • If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?


Onomatopoeia
ONOMATOPOEIA

  • Words that imitate the sound they are naming

  • BUZZ

  • OR sounds that imitate another sound

  • “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”


Figurative language

FIGURATIVELANGUAGE


Simile
SIMILE

  • A comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as”

    Ex: “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”


Metaphor
METAPHOR

  • A direct comparison of two unlike things

    Ex: “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.”

    - William Shakespeare


Extended metaphor
EXTENDED METAPHOR

  • A metaphor that goes on for several lines or possibly the entire length of a work.


Hyperbole
HYPERBOLE

  • Exaggeration often used for emphasis.

    Ex: “I studied for 500 hours and still failed the test!”


Screamin’ Millieby Shel SilversteinMillie McDeevit screamed a screamSo loud it made her eyebrows steam.She screamed so loud her jawbone broke,Her tongue caught fire, her nostrils smoked,Her eyeballs boiled and then popped out,Her ears flew north, her nose went south,Her teeth flew out, her voice was wrecked,Her head went sailing off her neck—Over the hillside, ‘cross the stream,Into the skies it chased the scream.And that’s what happened to Millie McDeevit(At least I hope all you screamers believe it).


Idiom
IDIOM

  • An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says.

    Ex: “It’s raining cats and dogs.”


Personification
PERSONIFICATION

  • An animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities.

EX: from “Ninki”

by Shirley Jackson

“Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.


Other poetic devices

OTHERPOETIC DEVICES


Imagery
IMAGERY

  • Language that appeals to the senses.

  • Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell.

then with cracked hands that ached

from labor in the weekday weather . . .

from “Those Winter Sundays”


Symbolism
SYMBOLISM

  • Often used in poetry

  • A person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else.

=Innocence

= America

= Peace


Allusion
ALLUSION

  • Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to”

  • An allusion is a reference to something famous.

A tunnel walled and overlaid

With dazzling crystal: we had read

Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave,

And to our own his name we gave.

From “Snowbound”

John Greenleaf Whittier



Imagery poems
IMAGERY POEMS

  • Draw the reader into poetic experiences by touching on the images and senses which the reader already knows.

  • The use of the five senses in this type of poetry serves to intensify the impact of the work.


Imagery poem example
Imagery Poem Example

The Red Wheelbarrow  

by William Carlos Williams

so much depends

upon

a red wheel

barrow

glazed with rain

water

beside the white

chickens.


Haiku
HAIKU

  • A Japanese poem written in three lines

  • FORM:

    Five Syllables

    Seven Syllables

    Five Syllables

  • Defines a single moment in time in nature

  • Does not rhyme!


Haiku examples
Haiku Examples

The Rose

Donna Brock

The red blossom bends

and drips its dew to the ground.

Like a tear it falls

A Rainbow

Donna Brock

Curving up, then down.

Meeting blue sky and green earth

Melding sun and rain.


Couplet
COUPLET

  • A stanza of only two lines which usually rhyme.

  • Shakespearean (also called Elizabethan and English) sonnets usually end in a couplet and are a pair of lines that are the same length and usually rhyme and form a complete thought.


Couplet example
Couplet Example

By Shakespeare: (two excerpt form his sonnets)

Blessed are you whose worthiness gives scope,

Being had, to triumph; being lacked, to hope.

You still shall live, such virtue hath my pen,

Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men.


Limerick
LIMERICK

  • A five-line poem written with one couplet and one triplet.

  • If a couplet is a two-line rhymed poem, then a triplet would be a three-line rhymed poem.

  • The rhyme pattern is a AABBA

    *Lines 1, 2 and 5 containing 3 beats and rhyming

    *Lines 3 and 4 having two beats and rhyming


More about limericks
More About Limericks…

  • Limericks are meant to be funny.

  • They often contain hyperbole, onomatopoeia, idioms, puns, and other figurative devices.

  • The last line of a good limerick contains the PUNCH LINE or "heart of the joke."


Example of limerick
Example of Limerick

There was an Old Man with a beard, Who said 'It is just as I feared! - Two Owls and a Hen, Four Larks and a Wren, Have all built their nests in my beard!‘

~ Edward Lear


How to write a limerick
How to write a Limerick!

There was an old man from Peru, (A) da DUM da da DUM da da DUM (3 DUMS)

who dreamed he was eating his shoe. (A) da DUM da da DUM da da DUM (3 DUMS)

He awoke in the night (B)da DUM da da DUM (2 DUMS)

with a terrible fright, (B)da da DUM da da DUM (2 DUMS)

and found out that it was quite true. (A) da DUM da da DUM da da DUM (3 DUMS)


Free verse
FREE VERSE

  • Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.

  • Does NOT have rhyme.

  • Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you.

  • A more modern type of poetry.


Free verse example
Free Verse Example

Song of Myself (excerpt)by Walt Whitman

I celebrate myself, and sing myself,And what I assume you shall assume,For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.I loaf and invite my soul,I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.


Concrete poems
CONCRETE POEMS

  • In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem.

Poetry

Is like

Flames,

Which are

Swift and elusive

Dodging realization

Sparks, like words on the

Paper, leap and dance in the

Flickering firelight. The fiery

Tongues, formless and shifting

Shapes, tease the imiagination.

Yet for those who see,

Through their mind’s

Eye, they burn

Up the page.



Shakespearean sonnet
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET

  • A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.

  • The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet.

  • The rhyme scheme is

    abab cdcd efef gg


Sonnet example
Sonnet Example

Shakespeare:

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate.

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.

Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimmed;

And every fair from fair sometimes declines,

By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.

But thy eternal summer shall not fade


Diamante
DIAMANTE

  • A seven-line, diamond-shaped poem which contrasts two opposites. It is more a visual poem than one to be read aloud.

    It follows this format:

    (Next Page)


DIAMANTE FORM:

  • 1st line and 7th line - Name the opposites.

  • 2nd and 6th lines - Two adjectives describing the opposite nearest it.

  • 3rd and 5th lines - Three participles (ing words) describing the nearest opposite.

  • 4th line – 2 two-word phrases (each must include a noun) for each of the opposites.

    (the poem changes from one of the opposites to the other.)


Example of Diamante

Peaks,Snowcapped, windswept, Reaching, waiting, challenging mountain ranges, ocean trenches,Obscuring, waiting, daunting Dark, blackDepths.


Cinquain
CINQUAIN

A short, five-line, non-rhyming poem which follows this format:

1st line - The title (one word)

2nd line - Describes the title (two words)

3rd line - Express action (three words)

4th line - A feeling or thought (four words)

5th line - A synonym for the title or a word close in meaning to it.


Example of cinquain
Example of Cinquain

Humpbacks

Majestic mammals

Sing sweet songs

Sometimes make me cry

Whales


Quatrain
QUATRAIN

  • Always has four lines.

  • Rhymes in one of four ways.

  • The four types of rhyme for a quatrain are: AABB

    ABAB

    ABBA

    ABCB


Example of quatrain aabb
Example of Quatrain (AABB)

Tyger! Tyger! burning bright

In the forests of the night,

What immortal hand or eye

Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

-From William Blake's "The Tyger"


Example of quatrain abab
Example of Quatrain (ABAB)

My wings shall ride the silken morn, Covering the silent sunlit sky, Under Cancer and Capricorn, Flying where no bird can fly.

- From Ryter Roethicle’s “My Wings”


Lyric poems
LYRIC POEMS

  • Usually written in first person point of view

  • Express the thoughts and feelings of the poet

  • Often have a musical quality


Lyric example
Lyric Example

I Felt a Funeral in my Brain (excerpt)

By Emily Dickinson

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain,

And Mourners to and fro

Kept treading - treading - till it seemed

That Sense was breaking through - 

And when they all were seated,

A Service, like a Drum –

Kept beating - beating - till I thought

My Mind was going numb


Narrative poems
NARRATIVE POEMS

  • A poem that tells a story.

  • Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot.


Example of narrative poem
Example of Narrative Poem

Annabel Lee (excerpt)

By Edgar Allan Poe

It was many and many a year ago,In a kingdom by the sea,That a maiden there lived whom you may knowBy the name of ANNABEL LEE;And this maiden she lived with no other thoughtThan to love and be loved by me.


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