What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa
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What can Turkish science education learn from English science education, and vice versa?. Outline. Science education in Turkey Purpose of the research About the research Findings Conclusions. Science education in Turkey. Elementary education is for 8 years: 6-13 Years old (grade 1-8)

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What can Turkish science education learn from English science education, and vice versa?

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What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa

What can Turkish science education learn from English science education, and vice versa?

Oktay Bektas


Outline

Outline

  • Science education in Turkey

  • Purpose of the research

  • About the research

  • Findings

  • Conclusions

Oktay Bektas


Science education in turkey

Science education in Turkey

  • Elementary education is for 8 years: 6-13 Years old (grade 1-8)

  • Secondary education is for 4 years:14-17 Years old (grade 9-12)

  • Life science (grade1-3), science and technology (4-8), Physics, chemistry, and biology (grade 9-12)

  • There are on average 40 students in each science class

  • Science education curriculum is over-loaded

  • Teachers usually use traditional method (lecturing), whilst students listen to them and take notes

  • Students commonly use their science textbooks, teachers generally do not give them extra materials (worksheets, etc.)

  • Practical teaching (laboratory) in science teaching is usually not undertaken

  • The seating arrangement of students in the classroom is not appropriate for constructivist teaching

  • Technological facilities (computer, projector etc.) are insufficient

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Science education in turkey1

Science education in Turkey

  • There is an exam after the 8th grade which is for entrance to the more prestigious high schools such as Science high schools.

  • After high school, the students enter the “Student Selection Exam”. In Turkey, the only way to enter a university is through this exam. 1,510,000 students took exam in 2006. It is a multiple choice exam.

  • Teachers see their main role as to instruct students how to solve the multiple choice items, is not to elicit and challenge students’ misconceptions about science subjects

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Science education in turkey2

Science education in Turkey

  • Ministry of Education and Board of Education want to change the science education curriculum according to constructivist teaching strategies

  • A constructivist approach has been considered not only in terms of the basic philosophy of the curriculum but also in informing teaching and learning activitiessince 2004 in elementary science education.

  • 9th grade and 10th grade science education curriculum has been changed to reflect a constructivist teaching strategy. The constructivist approach to teaching has been tried out in the 9th grade since 2007 first semester, but this strategy will be applied in the 10th grade on 2009 first semester

  • There are insufficient well-prepared teachers to apply constructivist teaching strategies because teachers have not learnt this strategy

  • Teachers do not want to use this strategy because of the over-loaded curriculum and the importance of the university entrance exam

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Why am i here

Why am I here?

  • Because

    • I want to inform Turkish science teachers about how to apply constructivist teaching strategies

    • England is meant to be more progressive in terms of constructivist teaching, so I went to schools to see if that is so.

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Information about research

Information about research

  • Method:

    • Semi-structured observation

  • Aim:

    • To examine whether the science teachers in the England use constructivist teaching strategies

    • To examine how they use these strategies, if they use them

  • Time:

    • Undertaken in 2008 (between January and June)

  • Schools:

    • One sixth form college and four high schools

  • Cities:

    • Cambridge, Peterborough, Bishop’s Stortford (2 schools), King’s Lynn

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Information about research1

Information about research

  • Method:

    • Semi-structured observation: will have agenda of issues but will gather data to illuminate these issues in a far less predetermined or systematic manner (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2001).

    • Observer: I sat down at the back of class and took notes informed by a prior consideration of what the features of constructivist teaching would be.

      Reference:

      Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2001). Research Methods in Education, 5th Edition, London and New York-Routledge Falmer.

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What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa

Oktay Bektas


What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa

Oktay Bektas


What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa

Oktay Bektas


Information about research2

Information about research

Oktay Bektas


Information about research3

Information about research

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Information about research4

Information about research

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Information about research5

Information about research

  • What do you think about the number of the students in a class in terms of the appropriateness of constructivist teaching?

  • The number of the students

    • There were between 16 students and 31 students in the classes (For example; 16 students-college, biology; 24 students-high school-3, physics)

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Findings regarding research

Findings regarding research

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Findings regarding research1

Findings regarding research

  • Using activity/method

    • Questioning (6 teachers), Discussion (4 teachers), demonstration (3 teachers), Experiment (4 teachers), Drawing graph (2 teachers), concept mapping (2 teachers), Inquiry (1 teacher), cooperative learning (1 teacher), Peer instruction (1 teacher), and role playing (1 teacher)

  • Note taking and listening

    • Students took notes and listened their teachers (5/13 lesson)

    • Partially/sometimes note taking and listening (6/13)

    • Not note taking and listening-constructivist (2/13-college)

  • Working from textbook

    • Students used only their textbooks (3/13-college and HS1)

  • Extra material using (sheet, graph paper, e.g.)

    • 8 teachers gave extra material their students

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Findings regarding research2

Findings regarding research

  • Strict environment

    • Teachers were strict towards students in the two classes (2/13) (HS1). There was not a strict environment in the other classes (11/13)

  • Mostly teacher questions-checking received message?

    • 3 teachers asked questions in order to check received message (college, 2 biology teachers-HS3, physics teacher)

    • 3 teachers did not ask questions to check received message (college-chemistry teacher, HS2-biology teacher, HS3-chemistry teacher). They asked their questions to check understanding

    • 7 teachers sometimes asked questions in order to check received message, but sometimes asked in order to check understanding

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Findings regarding observation

Findings regarding observation

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Findings regarding observation1

Findings regarding observation

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Findings regarding observation2

Findings regarding observation

  • Assessment:

    • Students were given points (0-2-4-6) in terms of implementation of practical work and collection and presentation of raw data. If students conducted practical work safely and in a well-organized manner and if they used apparatus skillfully and without the need for assistance, then they took 6 points (College-Practical biology)

    • Teacher made formative assessments to decide whether students understood the experiment (College-chemistry)

    • At the end of the lesson, the teacher used the internet in order to give a quiz. There were 20 multiple choice items about subject. These questions were answered one by one by students. Therefore, she checked whether they learned about subject. If students gave wrong answer about question, they discussed that question again (HS2-Biology)

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Findings regarding observation appropriateness of the classroom environment

Findings regarding observationAppropriateness of the classroom environment

  • Posters, tables, and pictures

    • All classes (laboratories) included display materials about science

  • Apparatus (e.g. glasses, and laboratory coat), and chemicals (e.g. HCl)

    • All laboratories had plenty of equipment and materials relating to practical lab work

  • U-Shaped (sitting style)

    • The seating arrangement of students was appropriate for constructivist teaching in the College (Theoretical Biology, Physics), and High school 2 (environmental chemistry)

  • Bookcases

    • There were bookcases to put textbooks and books in the all laboratories

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Findings regarding observation3

Findings regarding observation

  • Technological Facilities

    • All classes (laboratories) had television, video, projector, clock, whiteboard, interactive board, and periodic table

    • Teachers used technological devices very well, however; some teachers could not use them effectively in terms of constructivist teaching

  • Emphasizing misconceptions

    • None of the teachers did not emphasize the misconceptions of students, butin constructivism, considering students’ preconceptions, new knowledge of them is built and tried to prevent their misconceptions.

  • Technicians

    • There were technicians to clean away materials and to prepare the apparatus and materials of experiment. They helped teachers in the laboratory. There was no lost time during experiment since all materials and apparatus were prepared by technicians.

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Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Science education in England is appropriate for constructivist teaching in terms of:

    • the technological facilities

    • the number of students in the class

    • the environment of the classroom

    • the practical work

    • the used teaching methods, techniques, activities

    • the homework and feedbacks

  • is NOT appropriate for constructivist teaching in terms of:

    • the extent to which teachers work from students’ own existing understanding – e.g. identifying and emphasizing misconceptions

    • the sitting style

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Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • Technicians

    • Technicians are very good for teachers and students in England

    • The Turkish science education system should consider technicians in the high schools in order to help science teachers.

  • Practical work

    • Turkish science teachers should take more time for practical work in their courses.

  • Technological facilities

    • All classrooms have computers in England, so The Turkish science education system should consider technological facilities in all classrooms

Oktay Bektas


What can turkish science education learn from english science education and vice versa

THANK YOU

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