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HCCI – Diagnostics and Control. Prof. Bengt Johansson Div. of Combustion Engines, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering,. [email protected] www.vok.lth.se. Outline. Current engines HCCI in general HCCI in Lund, some results Production. Normal SI engine fuel consumption.

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hcci diagnostics and control

HCCI – Diagnostics and Control

Prof. Bengt Johansson

Div. of Combustion Engines,

Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering,

[email protected]

www.vok.lth.se

outline
Outline
  • Current engines
  • HCCI in general
  • HCCI in Lund, some results
  • Production
slide4

Introduction

Lean limit

100%

Catalyst Efficiency

99%

98%

0.8

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

5.0

SI engine - part load improvement

Stoichiometric premixed charge SI engine

- Low part load efficiency

+ Low emissions with 3-way catalyst

Lean burn premixed charge SI engine

+ Reduced pumping work

 improved part load efficiency

- Increased HC and NOx

Stratified charge SI engine - GDI

+ Removed pumping work 

much improved part load efficiency

- Large problem with NOx and PM

HCCI

+ Removed pumping work 

much improved part load efficiency

+ Shorter combustion period 

improved overall efficiency

- Engine control problem

diesel engine ci
Diesel Engine (CI)
  • Large problems with emissions of NOx and PM
  • High fuel efficiency (low CO2 emission)
hcci emissions
HCCI Emissions

AutoTechnology

Oct. 2002, p 54

HCCI

0,01

USA 2007

*

PM

0,00

0,05

0

0,5

NOx

hcci activities in lund
HCCI activities in Lund
  • Basic engine studies
  • Laser diagnostics
  • Combustion modeling - Chemical kinetics
  • Closed loop combustion control
experimental facilities single cylinder engines
Experimental facilities – single cylinder engines

Scania 2 liter

(Volvo 1.6 liter)

Volvo/Alvar 0.5 liter VCR

Old Hot bulb engine

multicylinder engines for hcci control
Multicylinder engines for HCCI control

Scania 12 liter 6 cylinder dual fuel

Volvo 12 liter 6 cylinder VGT

Volvo 3 liter 6 cylinder VVT

Saab 1.6 liter 5 cylinder VCR/FTM

hcci activities in lund1
HCCI activities in Lund
  • Basic engine studies
  • Laser diagnostics
  • Combustion modeling - Chemical kinetics
  • Closed loop combustion control
low nox from hcci mode
Low NOx from HCCI mode

Gasoline & Diesel fuel

0.05

100% Gas

l

=3.0

0.045

65% Gas

n=1000 rpm

40% Gas

0.04

20% Gas

0% Gas

0.035

0.03

Specific NOx emissions [g/kWh]

0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0

10

15

20

25

Compression Ratio

slide22

Turbulence and geometry effects on HCCI

Experimental setup

Square bowl-in-piston

Disc

Swirl Ratio=2.8

HS case

Swirl Ratio=2.0

LS case

slide23

Turbulence and geometry effects on HCCI

4

Disc, LS Head

Centre Position

Disc, HS Head

3.5

Square, LS Head

Square, HS Head

3

2.5

Turbulence [m/s]

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

Crank Angle [CAD]

Turbulence

slide24

Turbulence and geometry effects on HCCI

8

Disc, LS Head

Side Position

Disc, HS Head

7

Square, LS Head

Square, HS Head

6

5

Turbulence [m/s]

4

3

2

1

0

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

Crank Angle [CAD]

Turbulence

Different scale

slide25

Turbulence and geometry effects on HCCI

800

Disc, LS Head

SOC=-2 CAD

Disc, HS Head

700

Square, LS Head

Square, HS Head

600

500

Rate of Heat Release [J/CAD]

400

300

200

100

TDC

0

-5

0

5

10

°

Crank Angle [

ATDC]

Rate of Heat Release

hcci activities in lund2
HCCI activities in Lund
  • Basic engine studies
  • Laser diagnostics
  • Combustion modeling - Chemical kinetics
  • Closed loop combustion control
fuel distribution prior to combustion
Fuel DistributionPrior to Combustion

With port-injection

With mixing tank

slide29

Tracer PLIF after Auto-ignition

With port-injection

With mixing tank

slide30

OH PLIF Imaging

With port-injection

With mixing tank

slide32

Multi YAG-Laser System

Ordinary laser

t

Multiple pulse laser

t

  • Single/Double pulse operation
  • 4 Pulses:Time separation (0-100ms)
  • 8 Pulses:Time separation (6-145µs)
  • Wavelengths:532nm and 266nm
  • Dye-laser for tuneable operation
slide33

High Speed Camera

  • 8 independent CCD’s, 576x384 pixels 10 ns temporal resolution
  • Optional image intensifier  UV sensitive 1 µs temporal resolution
slide34

Cyl. Volume 1951 cm3

Bore 127 mm

Stroke 154 mm

Comp. Ratio 16:1

Chamber design Pancake

Fuel Ethanol

Lambda 3.85

Experimental setup(Scania)

slide35

2 ATDC

2.5 ATDC

3 ATDC

3.5 ATDC

4 ATDC

4.5 ATDC

5 ATDC

5.5 ATDC

  • Fuel: ethanol
  • Tracer: 10% acetone
  • l3.85
  • Rc: 16:1

Fuel Tracer PLIF(resolved single-cycle)

W16mars_4

conceptual model of hcci
Conceptual model of HCCI

Assuming homogeneous distributions of P, l, EGR% and RR:

Ignition occurs when I reaches a critical value

conceptual model of hcci1
Conceptual model of HCCI

Effect of heterogeneous air/fuel ratio

slide39

Turbulence and geometry effects on HCCI

+2

+2.5

+3

+3.5

+4

+4.5

+5

+5.5

Suppression of hot and reactive zones

Single cycle fuel tracer LIF sequences

hcci activities in lund3
HCCI activities in Lund
  • Basic engine studies
  • Laser diagnostics
  • Combustion modeling - Chemical kinetics
  • Closed loop combustion control
closed loop combustion control clcc
Closed loop combustion control, CLCC

Inlet

Conditions

(pin,Tin)

User

Inputs

HEATERS

PC

Status

Calculation

NI PCI 6054

WaveBook

516

n-heptane

i-octane

PID

Controllers

PressureTraces

Injector

Actuator

control parameters
Control Parameters

6

x 10

15

Max dp/dCA

Max Pressure

10

Cylinder Pressure [Pa]

5

0

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

Controlled

  • CA50
  • Net IMEP:s

Constraints

  • Peak pressure
  • Peak dp/dCA
  • Net heat release

3000

Heat Release

2000

Heat Release, Q [J]

1000

0

CA50

-1000

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

Crank Angle [deg ATDC]

combustion timing
Combustion Timing

Ignition Diagram

15

10

5

Combustion phasing [CA 50]

0

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

-5

-10

Octane Number

S = d(CA50%) / d(Octane Number)

unstable operation
Unstable Operation

35

Stable

Unstable

30

25

20

CA50 [°ATDC]

15

10

5

0

0

100

200

300

400

Cycle Index

@ 3 bar IMEP

@ 4.5 bar IMEP

Closed loop control switched off

operating range
Operating range

280 kW (380 hk)

  • HCCI Diesel
  • 21 bar
  • 280 310 kW
typical high load cycle
Typical high load cycle

200

2

180

1.8

160

1.6

140

1.4

120

1.2

Cylinder Pressure [bar]

Rate of Heat Release [kJ/CAD]

100

1

80

0.8

60

0.6

40

0.4

20

0.2

0

0

-30

-30

-20

-20

-10

-10

0

0

10

10

20

20

30

30

Crank angle [CAD]

Load limited by Peak Cylinder Pressure at 200 bar and maximum rate of pressure at 30 bar/CAD

IMEP net 17.4 bar

IMEP gross 20.4 bar

Animation Power

akroyd hot bulb engine 1890
Akroyd Hot Bulb Engine 1890
  • Low pressure early direct injection
  • Fuel mix with residual gas and air before combustion
  • Combustion started as temperature increase due to compression

Photo of model at the Science Museum, London UK

2 stroke hot bulb engine
2-Stroke Hot Bulb Engine

Photo of drawing displayed at the Smithsonian Museum ,Washington, US

slide55

Efficiency

Efficiency

40

30

20

DI

PC

10

SC

SI

0

HT

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

HB

[%]

b

h

BMEP [bar]

2002-01-0115

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