Psychology 63 alcohol drug studies prevention and education
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Psychology 63- Alcohol/ Drug Studies- Prevention and Education. Chapter 1- Introduction and Primary Prevention. Introductions and Group Work. Please get into groups of 4 or 5 students Introduce yourselves to one another Elect a group facilitator and a record keeper

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Psychology 63 alcohol drug studies prevention and education

Psychology 63- Alcohol/ Drug Studies- Prevention and Education

Chapter 1- Introduction and Primary Prevention


Introductions and group work
Introductions and Group Work Education

  • Please get into groups of 4 or 5 students

  • Introduce yourselves to one another

  • Elect a group facilitator and a record keeper

  • As a group please answer and document answers to the following questions on the next slide


Class expectations
Class Expectations Education

  • What are some your goals for this course?

  • How will you know you have accomplished these goals?

  • Why are you taking this class?

  • What makes a good class? Please provide specific examples.

  • What makes a good professor?

  • What have been some of the worst experiences you have had in previous classes? Don’t mention names.


What do you know
What do you know? Education

  • What is drug abuse and what is not?

  • What is the difference between a risk factor and a protective factor? Can you list some examples of each?

  • What are some early signs of risk that may predict later drug abuse?

  • What are the highest risk periods for drug abuse among youth?

  • When and how does drug abuse start and progress?


Drug abuse
Drug Abuse Education

  • Black or White? Or more complicated than that?

    • Traditional ideas attempt to define substance abuse as either “use” or “abuse”

    • Contemporary definitions expand this definition to a broader concept

    • Modern definitions use a _______to describe the concept of abuse.

    • Terms like “abuse” are being replaced with concepts like "substance and alcohol type problems" or "harmful/problematic use" of drugs

    • This helps professionals expand their understanding of substance problems.


What do you know1
What do you know? Education

  • What is the difference between a risk factor and a protective factor? Can you list some examples of each?

  • What are some early signs of risk that may predict later drug abuse?

  • What are the highest risk periods for drug abuse among youth?

  • When and how does drug abuse start and progress?


Protective factors vs risk factors
Protective Factors vs Risk Factors Education

  • _________increase a person’s chances for drug abuse.

    • Poverty

    • Abuse

    • Lack of supervision

  • _____________reduce the risk for drug abuse.

    • Community involvement

    • Academic success

    • Intact family

  • Please note, however, that most individuals at risk for drug abuse do not start using drugs or become addicted. Also, a risk factor for one person may not be for another.


What do you know2
What do you know? Education

  • What are some early signs of risk that may predict later drug abuse?

  • What are the highest risk periods for drug abuse among youth?

  • When and how does drug abuse start and progress?


Early risk factors
Early Risk Factors Education

  • Risk factors can begin in infancy and early childhood

    • ________________

    • Lack of self control

    • Difficult temperament

  • Early Interactions

    • Lack of attachment and nurturing by parents or caregivers

    • _________________

    • Caregiver who abuses drugs

  • Protective factors include

    • Strong bond between children and parents

    • Parental involvement

    • ________________________________


What do you know3
What do you know? Education

  • What are the highest risk periods for drug abuse among youth?

  • When and how does drug abuse start and progress?


Early risk periods
Early Risk Periods Education

  • _________________

    • 1) transition of beginning school

    • 2)transition to middle school

      • In general early adolescence is a difficult period for people and is a significant period of risk for the development of drug abuse

    • 3)transition to high school

  • In general risk increases during transition periods. These transitions follow us through life and represent a significant increase in risk

    • Job loss

    • Divorce

    • End of military service


What do you know4
What do you know? Education

  • When and how does drug abuse start and progress?


Initiation and progression
Initiation and Progression Education

  • Some children are abusing drugs at ages 12 or 13

    • This suggest even earlier exposure to drug use

  • Early use often includes such substances as

    • Tobacco

    • Alcohol

    • Inhalants

    • Marijuana

    • Prescription Medications

  • Studies have shown that abuse in late childhood and early adolescence is associated with ________drug involvement.

  • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Youth who rapidly increase their substance abuse often have high levels of risk factors and low levels of protective factors.


Statistics on substance abuse
Statistics on Substance Abuse Education

  • http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k9NSDUH/2k9Results.htm

  • What percent of Americans acknowledged using an illicit drug during the previous month?

  • In 2009, an estimated 21.8 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) illicit drug users, meaning they had used an illicit drug during the month prior to the survey interview. This estimate represents ____ percent of the population aged 12 or older. Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used non-medically.


Alcohol
Alcohol Education

  • What percent of Americans report heavy drinking in the last month?

    • Heavy drinking is defined as binge drinking on at least 5 days in the past 30 days.

    • Binge drinking is defined as having five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the 30 days prior to the survey.

  • In 2009, heavy drinking was reported by _____ percent of the population aged 12 or older, or 17.1 million people. This rate was similar to the rate of heavy drinking in 2008.

  • In 2009, nearly one quarter (_____ percent) of persons aged 12 or older participated in binge drinking. This translates to about 59.6 million people. The rate in 2009 is similar to the estimate in 2008.


Tobacco
Tobacco Education

  • What percentage of Americans are currently using tobacco products?

  • In 2009, an estimated 69.7 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) users of a tobacco product. This represents ____ percent of the population in that age range. In addition, 58.7 million persons (23.3 percent of the population) were current cigarette smokers; 13.3 million (5.3 percent) smoked cigars; 8.6 million (3.4 percent) used smokeless tobacco; and 2.1 million (0.8 percent) smoked tobacco in pipes.


Marijuana
Marijuana Education

  • What percentage of Americans used marijuana in the past month?

  • Marijuana was the most commonly used illicit drug. In 2009, there were 16.7 million past month users. Among persons aged 12 or older, the rate of past month marijuana use and the number of users in 2009 (_____ percent or 16.7 million) were higher than in 2008 (6.1 percent or 15.2 million) and in 2007 (5.8 percent or 14.4 million).


Other drugs
Other Drugs Education

  • In 2009, there were 1.6 million current cocaine users aged 12 or older, comprising 0.7 percent of the population. These estimates were similar to the number and rate in 2008 (1.9 million or 0.7 percent) but were lower than the estimates in 2006 (2.4 million or 1.0 percent).

  • Hallucinogens were used in the past month by 1.3 million persons (0.5 percent) aged 12 or older in 2009, including 760,000 (0.3 percent) who had used Ecstasy. The number and percentage of Ecstasy users increased between 2008 (555,000 or 0.2 percent) and 2009.

  • In 2009, there were 7.0 million (2.8 percent) persons aged 12 or older who used prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs non-medically in the past month. These estimates were higher than in 2008 (6.2 million or 2.5 percent), but similar to estimates in 2007 (6.9 million or 2.8 percent).

  • The number of past month methamphetamine users decreased between 2006 and 2008, but then increased in 2009. The numbers were 731,000 (0.3 percent) in 2006, 529,000 (0.2 percent) in 2007, 314,000 (0.1 percent) in 2008, and 502,000 (0.2 percent) in 2009.


History of various substances
History of Various Substances Education

  • Please take time to review the history of various substances on page 429 through 441


Public health model
Public Health Model Education

  • The goal of the public health model is to improve lives through the ___________________of disease.

  • The primary focus of a public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a disease through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors.

  • In addition to these activities, in many cases treating a disease can be vital to preventing death, and its spread to others, such as during an outbreak of infectious disease or contamination of food or water supplies. 

  • Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of public health measures.



Public health model2
Public Health Model Education

  • Components

    • _______-substance

    • Host-individual

    • Environment

  • Levels of Prevention

    • Primary prevention

      • is inhibiting the development of disease before it occurs.

    • Secondary prevention

      • is defined as identifying and assessing ATOD problems at early stages so that use is not escalated and help is provided to return early-stage users to non users.

      • refers to measures that detect disease before it is symptomatic.

    • ________________

      • refers to treatment and relapse prevention for recovering alcoholics and addicts.

      • efforts focus on people already affected by disease and attempt to reduce resultant disability and restore functionality.Prevention is better than cure.-Erasmus


Prevention principles
Prevention Principles Education

  • PRINCIPLE 1 - _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

  • PRINCIPLE 2 - Prevention programs should address all forms of drug abuse, alone or in combination, including the underage use of legal drugs (e.g., tobacco or alcohol); the use of illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana or heroin); and the inappropriate use of legally obtained substances (e.g., inhalants), prescription medications, or over-the-counter drugs.

  • PRINCIPLE 3 - Prevention programs should address the type of drug abuse problem in the local community, target modifiable risk factors, and strengthen identified protective factors.PRINCIPLE 4 - Prevention programs should be tailored to address risks specific to population or audience characteristics, such as age, gender, and ethnicity, to improve program effectiveness.


Prevention principles1
Prevention Principles Education

  • PRINCIPLE 5 - Family-based prevention programs should enhance family bonding and relationships and include parenting skills; practice in developing, discussing, and enforcing family policies on substance abuse; and training in drug education and information.

  • PRINCIPLE 6 - Prevention programs can be designed to intervene as early as preschool to address risk factors for drug abuse, such as aggressive behavior, poor social skills, and academic difficulties.

  • PRINCIPLE 7 - Prevention programs for elementary school children should target improving academic and social-emotional learning to address risk factors for drug abuse, such as early aggression, academic failure, and school dropout. Education should focus on the following skills

    • self-control;

    • __________________;

    • communication;

    • ___________________; and

    • academic support, especially in reading.


Prevention principles2
Prevention Principles Education

  • PRINCIPLE 8 - Prevention programs for middle or junior high and high school students should increase academic and social competence with the following skills:

    • study habits and academic support;

    • communication;

    • peer relationships;

    • self-efficacy and assertiveness;

    • drug resistance skills;

    • reinforcement of anti-drug attitudes; and

    • strengthening of personal commitments against drug abuse.

  • PRINCIPLE 9 - Prevention programs aimed at general populations at key transition points, such as the transition to middle school, can produce beneficial effects even among high-risk families and children. Such interventions do not single out risk populations and, therefore, reduce labeling and promote bonding to school and community.

  • PRINCIPLE 10 - Community prevention programs that combine two or more effective programs, such as family-based and school-based programs, can be more effective than a single program alone.

  • PRINCIPLE 11 - Community prevention programs reaching populations in multiple settings—for example, schools, clubs, faith-based organizations, and the media—are most effective when they present consistent, community-wide messages in each setting


Prevention principles3
Prevention Principles Education

  • PRINCIPLE 12 - When communities adapt programs to match their needs, community norms, or differing cultural requirements, they should retain core elements of the original research-based intervention.

  • PRINCIPLE 13 - Prevention programs should be long-term with repeated interventions (i.e., booster programs) to reinforce the original prevention goals. Research shows that the benefits from middle school prevention programs diminish without follow-up programs in high school.

  • PRINCIPLE 14 - Prevention programs should include teacher training on good classroom management practices, such as rewarding appropriate student behavior. Such techniques help to foster students’ positive behavior, achievement, academic motivation, and school bonding.

  • PRINCIPLE 15 - Prevention programs are most effective when they employ interactive techniques, such as peer discussion groups and parent role-playing, that allow for active involvement in learning about drug abuse and reinforcing skills.

  • PRINCIPLE 16 - Research-based prevention programs can be cost-effective. Similar to earlier research, recent research shows that for each dollar invested in prevention, a savings of up to $10 in treatment for alcohol or other substance abuse can be seen


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