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Mr. Hajek’s 4th-grade classroom Paradise Canyon Elementary School La Canada, California 3 October 2003. Plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Ken Hudnut U. S. Geological Survey. Plate tectonics, volcanoes and earthquakes. Part 1 - plate tectonics Part 2 - volcanoes

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Plate tectonics volcanoes and earthquakes

Mr. Hajek’s 4th-grade classroom

Paradise Canyon Elementary School

La Canada, California 3 October 2003

Plate tectonics, volcanoes,and earthquakes

Ken Hudnut

U. S. Geological Survey


Plate tectonics volcanoes and earthquakes1
Plate tectonics, volcanoesand earthquakes

  • Part 1 - plate tectonics

  • Part 2 - volcanoes

  • Part 3 - earthquakes


Part 1 plate tectonics
Part 1. Plate Tectonics

Movie by T. Atwater, UCSB


Motion between

the plates causes

earthquakes and

volcanoes


Earthquakes and volcanoes are driven by plate tectonic motion
Earthquakes and volcanoes are driven by plate tectonic motion

  • As a plate subducted, the Cascades volcanoes and San Andreas fault were born

  • The subducting plate melts and the magma rises up to form volcanoes

  • The plates sliding past each other make the active transform faults

Movie by T. Atwater, UCSB


Worksheet on plate edges
Worksheet on motionPlate Edges

  • Plate edges are of three types

    • Plates pull away from each other

    • Plates push towards each other

    • Plates slide past each other

color the plates!


Part 2 volcanoes
Part 2. Volcanoes motion

Eruption of Stromboli, Italy


Motion between motion

the plates causes

earthquakes and

volcanoes

This is really bad news for people (like us!) living around the Pacific Rim, also known as the Ring of Fire


Why do volcanoes erupt
Why do volcanoes erupt? motion

  • Pressure builds up because of heat and trapped gas bubbles

  • Cracks open and lava, steam and ash blast out

  • Sticky magma makes tall cone-shaped volcanoes (like Merapi)

  • Runny magma makes low, broad volcanoes (like Kilauea, Hawai’I)


Merapi volcano java
Merapi motionvolcano,Java

Strato-volcanoes

erupt igneous rocks!


Westdahl volcano alaska
Westdahl motionvolcano,Alaska

Volcanoes inflate

with magma, and

deflate with lava


Worksheet on ring of fire
Worksheet on motionRing of Fire

  • Plates crash into each other, causing high mountains and low ocean floor called trenches

    • Deepest trench is the Marianas (esp. at the ‘Challenger Deep’ location shown on map)

    • Highest mountain is Mt. Everest

color the ring of fire!


What about Hawai'i? motion

It's a 'hot spot'

Worksheet: hot spot track - islands cool, erode, & sink


Part 3 earthquakes
Part 3. Earthquakes motion

Earthquakes

are a global

problem

Istanbul

Tokyo

Mexico City

Jakarta

Santiago


Earthquakes are driven by plate tectonic motion
Earthquakes are driven by plate tectonic motion motion

  • In the past 5 million years, this motion has been steady at about 2 inches per year (that’s 15 feet per century or 30 miles per million years!)

  • Yes, LA will be in San Francisco

  • No, LA will not fall into the sea

Movie by T. Atwater, UCSB


Earthquakes are not only california s problem
Earthquakes are motionnot only California’s problem

$30M of oil each day!


Houston, we have a problem… motion

"Big Ones"

1906

1857


Southern california is the nation s most dangerous place for earthquakes why
Southern California is the nation’s most dangerous place for earthquakes - why?

Silver linings:

State-of-the-art earthquake monitoring arrays

Many of the world’s best researchers work within this natural laboratory


The san andreas fault
The San Andreas fault for earthquakes - why?


San andreas fault
San Andreas fault for earthquakes - why?

  • Most of the plate boundary motion

    • 1685, 1812, 1857 eq’s

  • Big Bend compression

    • 1971 Sylmar (M 6.7)

    • 1994 Northridge (M 6.7)

  • SoCal is now heavily ‘wired’ (much like Japan & Taiwan)

    • Seismic

    • GPS


GPS for earthquakes - why?


‘A rip in the desert canvas’ for earthquakes - why?

- Los Angeles Times

Katherine Kendrick, USGS

Chris Walls, Earth Consultants International


Flying the fault line
Flying the fault line… for earthquakes - why?


Conclusions
Conclusions: for earthquakes - why?

  • Earth is a very active planet - that’s both a good and bad thing

  • Humans can survive despite natural hazards - tragic losses from volcanoes & earthquake are not inevitable

  • Natural beauty results from plate tectonics - we can study & understand the world around us


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