What are Cultural Landscapes

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Carl O. Sauer

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What are Cultural Landscapes

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1. What are Cultural Landscapes? Heritage conservation Anthropology Goal is to provide an overview of how the concept of cultural landscapes has developed and been used.Goal is to provide an overview of how the concept of cultural landscapes has developed and been used.

2. Carl O. Sauer & Cultural Landscapes “The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result. Under the influence of a given culture, itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development.With the introduction of a different—that is, alien—culture, a rejuvenation of the cultural landscape sets in, or a new landscape is superimposed on the remnants of an older one.” (1925) Human geographer Carl O. Sauer is usually regarded as the first to define the concept using this definition, dating from 1925. Clearly, the definition is rooted in Western world-view, one where culture dominates nature. It is this definition which has dominated the development of the concept in the realm of heritage conservation. Human geographer Carl O. Sauer is usually regarded as the first to define the concept using this definition, dating from 1925. Clearly, the definition is rooted in Western world-view, one where culture dominates nature. It is this definition which has dominated the development of the concept in the realm of heritage conservation.

3. How are Cultural Landscapes Commemorated? International National NWT, or local perspectives International National NWT, or local perspectives

4. World Heritage Convention (UNESCO 1992) 1) Defined Landscapes A clearly defined landscape is one designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes characteristically constructed for aesthetic, social and recreational reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles EXAMPLE: Palace and Park of Versailles, France 2) Evolved Landscape An organically evolved landscape results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories: A: a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form. EXAMPLE: Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mines in Japan: The abundant traces of the silver industry, such as mines, smelting and refining sites, roads and trackways, and port facilities, that have survived virtually intact in the Iwami-Ginzan area, are now concealed to a large extent by the natural forest that has recolonized the landscape. The resulting relict landscape, which includes the surviving settlements of the people related to the silver industry, bears dramatic witness to an historic land-use of outstanding value. Dates to 16th and 17th centuries. B: a continuing landscape is one which retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with a traditional way of life. It is continuing to evolve while, at the same time, it exhibits significant material evidence of its historic evolution EXAMPLE: Rice terraces of Phillipine Cordilleras; began 2000 years ago but still in use today. 3) Associative Landscape An associative cultural landscape is a landscape with definable powerful, religious, artistic or cultural associations with the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent. EXAMPLE: Nagwichoonjik National Historic Site World Heritage Union (IUCN) is promoting the concept of Protected Landscapes and has guidelines for their identification and protection. (http://www.iucn.org/) European Landscape Convention has been signed by 18 countries. It recognizes, identifies and protects importance of cultural landscapes. (http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/176.htm) 1) Defined Landscapes A clearly defined landscape is one designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes characteristically constructed for aesthetic, social and recreational reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles EXAMPLE: Palace and Park of Versailles, France 2) Evolved Landscape An organically evolved landscape results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories: A: a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form. EXAMPLE: Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mines in Japan: The abundant traces of the silver industry, such as mines, smelting and refining sites, roads and trackways, and port facilities, that have survived virtually intact in the Iwami-Ginzan area, are now concealed to a large extent by the natural forest that has recolonized the landscape. The resulting relict landscape, which includes the surviving settlements of the people related to the silver industry, bears dramatic witness to an historic land-use of outstanding value. Dates to 16th and 17th centuries. B: a continuing landscape is one which retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with a traditional way of life. It is continuing to evolve while, at the same time, it exhibits significant material evidence of its historic evolution EXAMPLE: Rice terraces of Phillipine Cordilleras; began 2000 years ago but still in use today. 3) Associative Landscape An associative cultural landscape is a landscape with definable powerful, religious, artistic or cultural associations with the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent. EXAMPLE: Nagwichoonjik National Historic Site World Heritage Union (IUCN) is promoting the concept of Protected Landscapes and has guidelines for their identification and protection. (http://www.iucn.org/) European Landscape Convention has been signed by 18 countries. It recognizes, identifies and protects importance of cultural landscapes. (http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/176.htm)

5. Synonyms UNESCO: Associative Cultural Landscapes CANADA: Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes USA: Ethnographic Landscapes In US National Park Service, Ethnographic Landscapes are just one of four types which also include ‘historic sites’, ‘historic designed landscapes’, ‘historic vernacular landscapes’. Russia uses ethnographic landscapes Norway uses Sami cultural landscapesIn US National Park Service, Ethnographic Landscapes are just one of four types which also include ‘historic sites’, ‘historic designed landscapes’, ‘historic vernacular landscapes’. Russia uses ethnographic landscapes Norway uses Sami cultural landscapes

6. Canada Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada recommends… Parks Canada Agency manages the system… Policy documents specifically for Aboriginal cultural landscapes (which generally follow the UNESCO model). Susan Buggey (1999) An Approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes. (http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/r/pca-acl/index_E.asp) Botanical gardens, Montreal Kazan River Fall Caribou Crossing, Nunavut Generally commemorated as NHS and therefore with no protection. However, it is possible that a cultural landscape could receive protection as a Nat. Park.Botanical gardens, Montreal Kazan River Fall Caribou Crossing, Nunavut Generally commemorated as NHS and therefore with no protection. However, it is possible that a cultural landscape could receive protection as a Nat. Park.

7. Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes An Aboriginal cultural landscape is a place valued by an Aboriginal group (or groups) because of their long and complex relationship with that land. It expresses their unity with the natural and spiritual environment. It embodies their traditional knowledge of spirits, places, land uses, and ecology. Material remains of the association may be prominent, but will often be minimal or absent. In Canadian heritage commemoration we have focused on Aboriginal Cultural Landscape, led by Parks Canada and the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada.In Canadian heritage commemoration we have focused on Aboriginal Cultural Landscape, led by Parks Canada and the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada.

9. Territorial Level

10. Municipal Level Every community in the NWT, through settlement legislation, has the authority to commemorate cultural landscapes and other historic sites within their areas of authority. Only Yellowknife and Fort Simpson have developed heritage bylaws though neither has designated a cultural landscape. Hay River has passed a bylaw commemorating one historic building.Hay River has passed a bylaw commemorating one historic building.

11. Characteristics Large Numerous parts Nested and Overlapping (Bounded) Rarely come with legal protection Large: Nagwichoonjik NHS is 175km long reaching 5km inland from each bank of the Mackenzie River. Parts: archaeological sites, subsistence sites, sacred sites, place names, practices, and associated stories, and the meshwork of trails that connect them all. Environment and all it’s inhabitants as recognized from the ontological perspective of the group. For the Dene then a cultural landscape includes animals and spiritual entities inhabiting land, water and air. Can include seascapes as well. It is the sum of intangible and tangible values. Nested: Tlicho de sits inside of Denendeh which sits inside of Canada Bounded: not so much a defining characteristic as a requirement for commemoration.Large: Nagwichoonjik NHS is 175km long reaching 5km inland from each bank of the Mackenzie River. Parts: archaeological sites, subsistence sites, sacred sites, place names, practices, and associated stories, and the meshwork of trails that connect them all. Environment and all it’s inhabitants as recognized from the ontological perspective of the group. For the Dene then a cultural landscape includes animals and spiritual entities inhabiting land, water and air. Can include seascapes as well. It is the sum of intangible and tangible values. Nested: Tlicho de sits inside of Denendeh which sits inside of Canada Bounded: not so much a defining characteristic as a requirement for commemoration.

12. Critique of the CL Concept in Heritage Conservation Based on a Western world-view Fuzzy categories Finds its roots in the built heritage conservation Preoccupation with tangible and intangible Difficult to change Has led to a long, slow diplomacy-encumbered debate mired in discussions of authenticity and integrity that have grown out of a western world-view and its fixation on buildings as heritage.Has led to a long, slow diplomacy-encumbered debate mired in discussions of authenticity and integrity that have grown out of a western world-view and its fixation on buildings as heritage.

13. Land Claims Tĺîchô Land Claim: The Refuge. Land Selection protects the Îdaŕ and other trails.

14. Landscape in Anthropology In anthropology, as early as 1900 Franz Boas, impressed by the detailed environmental knowledge of the Baffin Inuit, suggested that one of the best ways to explore ‘mental life’ of Aboriginal societies was to investigate their geographical knowledge and Edward Sapir made a similar point in 1912. In the first half of the 20th century, North American anthropology often saw studies focused on ‘ethnogeograhy’ including studies of place names.. However, the practice began to fall into disuse following WWII. Basso: Moral Landscape: “The land makes people live right” and elders can “stalk with stories”. Apache; recently, others have used the term ‘sacred landscape’ Recommend “Wisdon Sits in Places”. Nuttall: Greenlandic Inuit, includes off-shore, or seascapes, as well. Work of Claudio Aporta (Carleton), Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project (IPY funded). Appadurai: addresses the anthropology of globalization and transnationalism. The ethnoscape of Somali refugees in Inuvik. Dwelling Perspective: The concept of dwelling, which finds its roots and inspiration in the phenomenology of Martin HeideggerDwelling is about the rich intimate ongoing togetherness of beings and things which make up landscapes and places, and which seamless nature and culture over time. In the dwelling perspective there is no divide between nature and culture, only the environment. Sentient Ecology: coined by David Anderson and his idea of “interagentivity” where humans and animals attend to each other. The term’ sentient ecology’ refers to how Evenki hunters act and move on the tundra in such a way that they are conscious that animals and the tundra itself are reacting to them. It describes an ‘interagentivity’ where animal and human persons ‘attend’ to each other. In anthropology, as early as 1900 Franz Boas, impressed by the detailed environmental knowledge of the Baffin Inuit, suggested that one of the best ways to explore ‘mental life’ of Aboriginal societies was to investigate their geographical knowledge and Edward Sapir made a similar point in 1912. In the first half of the 20th century, North American anthropology often saw studies focused on ‘ethnogeograhy’ including studies of place names.. However, the practice began to fall into disuse following WWII. Basso: Moral Landscape: “The land makes people live right” and elders can “stalk with stories”. Apache; recently, others have used the term ‘sacred landscape’ Recommend “Wisdon Sits in Places”. Nuttall: Greenlandic Inuit, includes off-shore, or seascapes, as well. Work of Claudio Aporta (Carleton), Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project (IPY funded). Appadurai: addresses the anthropology of globalization and transnationalism. The ethnoscape of Somali refugees in Inuvik. Dwelling Perspective: The concept of dwelling, which finds its roots and inspiration in the phenomenology of Martin HeideggerDwelling is about the rich intimate ongoing togetherness of beings and things which make up landscapes and places, and which seamless nature and culture over time. In the dwelling perspective there is no divide between nature and culture, only the environment. Sentient Ecology: coined by David Anderson and his idea of “interagentivity” where humans and animals attend to each other. The term’ sentient ecology’ refers to how Evenki hunters act and move on the tundra in such a way that they are conscious that animals and the tundra itself are reacting to them. It describes an ‘interagentivity’ where animal and human persons ‘attend’ to each other.

15. Cultural Landscapes and Impact Assessment Translation: Years ago I was fortunate in being invited to work with Tlicho elders and youth on an archaeological project focused on a two traditional trails, part of a ‘meshwork’—to use Tim Ingold’s term—of trails linking all parts of the immediate Tlicho cultural landscape. Though many people participated I worked most closely with an elder from Gameti named Harry Simpson. Harry and I met each other more than 25 years ago while I was working as a land claims researcher for the Dene Nation and we’ve have spent the last 15 years working together closely on one project or another. Sadly, Harry passed away almost a year ago and I miss him. During our archaeological research which took us by canoe on long journeys across the Tlicho cultural landscape, we’d often find ourselves the first up in the morning. In those quiet moments sitting around a camp fire, drinking coffee, Harry would teach me Tlicho words. Each morning there would be new words, but there was always a test to, and he would point to something and look expectedly at me, insisting that I utter the word flawlessly. Sometimes, he would point to a place on the map with the same expectation. In exchange I would help him with English though I never had the courage to test him. Harry would often say that “the land is like a book.” His use of this simile—linking him, his people, their culture and their history—to the landscape that we were travelling in terms that I would understand. For Harry, the land is a repository of knowledge, recorded in stories linked to place-names, that through the tangibility of place—of the land and the oral tradition and practices tied to it—teaches youth and bears witness to that continuing ‘interagentivity’ to borrow another term. I think Harry was trying to translate his understanding of the environment into terms that I could understand.   Recently the Lutselk’e Denesuline and the Yellowknives Dene First Nation have used the concept of cultural landscapes in an impact assessment setting. At one level this is an attempt to “translate” and explain their own world-view to a Western audience. Impact assessment process derives it authority from legislation rooted in English common law and a western worldview with roots in a judeo-christian philosophy that sees man’s domination over nature. The Dene worldview is very different and the concept of cultural landscapes provides a convenient tool for local groups to use to help explain their connection to their place.   Power: Ultimately it comes down to who holds the power to control change and because any debate operates within the context of the western worldview and system there is no balance in the debate. Balance: I think that the key is finding a balance in the sharing of power. Perhaps we find inspiration in the Tlicho educational philosophy of ‘strong like two people’ which recognizes that if Tlicho youth are going to make their way in the world today they need a working understanding of both the Tlicho and Western worldviews, which Eddie’s talk highlighted earlier. Translation: Years ago I was fortunate in being invited to work with Tlicho elders and youth on an archaeological project focused on a two traditional trails, part of a ‘meshwork’—to use Tim Ingold’s term—of trails linking all parts of the immediate Tlicho cultural landscape. Though many people participated I worked most closely with an elder from Gameti named Harry Simpson. Harry and I met each other more than 25 years ago while I was working as a land claims researcher for the Dene Nation and we’ve have spent the last 15 years working together closely on one project or another. Sadly, Harry passed away almost a year ago and I miss him. During our archaeological research which took us by canoe on long journeys across the Tlicho cultural landscape, we’d often find ourselves the first up in the morning. In those quiet moments sitting around a camp fire, drinking coffee, Harry would teach me Tlicho words. Each morning there would be new words, but there was always a test to, and he would point to something and look expectedly at me, insisting that I utter the word flawlessly. Sometimes, he would point to a place on the map with the same expectation. In exchange I would help him with English though I never had the courage to test him. Harry would often say that “the land is like a book.” His use of this simile—linking him, his people, their culture and their history—to the landscape that we were travelling in terms that I would understand. For Harry, the land is a repository of knowledge, recorded in stories linked to place-names, that through the tangibility of place—of the land and the oral tradition and practices tied to it—teaches youth and bears witness to that continuing ‘interagentivity’ to borrow another term. I think Harry was trying to translate his understanding of the environment into terms that I could understand.   Recently the Lutselk’e Denesuline and the Yellowknives Dene First Nation have used the concept of cultural landscapes in an impact assessment setting. At one level this is an attempt to “translate” and explain their own world-view to a Western audience. Impact assessment process derives it authority from legislation rooted in English common law and a western worldview with roots in a judeo-christian philosophy that sees man’s domination over nature. The Dene worldview is very different and the concept of cultural landscapes provides a convenient tool for local groups to use to help explain their connection to their place.   Power: Ultimately it comes down to who holds the power to control change and because any debate operates within the context of the western worldview and system there is no balance in the debate. Balance: I think that the key is finding a balance in the sharing of power. Perhaps we find inspiration in the Tlicho educational philosophy of ‘strong like two people’ which recognizes that if Tlicho youth are going to make their way in the world today they need a working understanding of both the Tlicho and Western worldviews, which Eddie’s talk highlighted earlier.

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