Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations
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ITU Workshop on “Tackling climate change and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Measurement” (Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012). Relevant ITU-T Recommendations for the Protection of Base Stations. Ahmed ZEDDAM , ITU-T SG5 Chair France Telecom Orange. Outline. INTRODUCTION

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Relevant ITU-T Recommendations for the Protection of Base Stations

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Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

ITU Workshop on

“Tackling climate change and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Measurement”

(Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012)

Relevant ITU-T Recommendations for the Protection of Base Stations

Ahmed ZEDDAM,

ITU-T SG5 Chair

France Telecom Orange


Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

Outline

  • INTRODUCTION

  • LIGHTNING PROTECTION

  • RECOMMENDATION ITU-T K.56

    • Need of Protection

    • Earthing and Bonding procedures

    • Use of SPDs

  • DECOUPLING WITH POWER NETWORK

  • CONCLUSION


Introduction

Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

Introduction

Protection of an installation may

require a combination of:

  • Lightning protection for the building

  • Protection on incoming lines

  • Resistibility of equipment

  • Earthing and bonding of installation

  • This presentation is about the protection of equipment within a base station


  • Sg 5 role in equipment protection

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    SG 5 role in equipment protection

    • SG 5 is unique SDO in overvoltage protection

      • Ensures coordination of the equipment and external protection

      • Considers installation practices and their effect on resistibility requirements


    Resistibility and protection

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Resistibility and protection

    • Preventing equipment damage may require a combination of resistibility and protection

      • Resistibility is

        • The ability of the equipment to withstand an overvoltage or overcurrent

      • Protection is

        • The addition of primary protection to prevent damage from larger surges

          • Need to check that the protector operates and protects the equipment


    Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Lightning Protection

    Lightning

    discharges

    can reach a

    telecommunication

    system by the

    following

    mechanisms:


    Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Lightning Protection

    Direct strikes


    Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Lightning Protection

    Coupling through

    the earth


    Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Lightning Protection

    Coupling through

    electromagnetic fields


    Relevant itu t recommendations for the protection of base stations

    Cotonou, Benin, 19 July 2012

    Lightning Protection

    • If adequate protection is missing, the lightning

    • surges can be very dangerous to telecommunications

    • systems, threatening :

      • Terminal equipment

      • Station equipment

      • And even human beings

  •  In order to protect the telecommunications systems

  • against the effects of lightning discharges, the ITU-T

  • SG-5 produced Handbooks and a set of Series K

  • Recommendations:


  • Recommendation itu t k 56 protection of radio base stations against lightning discharges

    Recommendation ITU-T K.56 : Protection of radio base stations against lightning discharges

    • Presents the techniques applied to a telecom. radio base stationin order to protect it against lightning discharges

    • The need of protection is obtained from the methodology contained in IEC 62305-2, which is used to determine the relevant lightning protection level (LPL) for the installation

    • The protection techniques for the external area cover the lightning protection system (LPS), bondingprocedures, earthingand the installation of surge protective devices (SPDs) at the power meter station

    • The protection techniques for the equipment building cover the feeder and lighting cables, the electric power conductors, the telecommunication cabling and the earthing/bonding procedures applied to cable trays and equipment frames


    Need of protection

    Need of protection

    Table 1 – Lightning flash parameters from [IEC 62305-1]

    • The risk assessment of the RBS shall be performed according to [IEC 62305-2] in order to determine a Lightning Protection Level (LPL) for the design of the protection procedures.

    • Table 1 shows some lightning flash parameters associated with each LPL.


    Earthing and bonding procedures applied to the external area

    Earthing and bonding procedures applied to the external area

    Figure 1 – General view of earthing and bonding procedures

    in the external area


    Earthing configuration

    Earthing configuration

    Figure 5 – Earthing system of the RBS


    Earthing configuration1

    Earthing configuration

    • A bare conductor forms a ring electrode around the building and another ring around the tower. Multiple earthing conductors are used to interconnect the two rings (three, in the figure).

    • The distance of the buried conductor from the associated structure shall be approximately 1.0 m, and the depth of the conductor shall be at least 0.5 m.

    • Vertical rods should be installed along the ring electrode, as shown in Figures 1 and 5. These rods should be made of steel covered with copper or made of galvanized steel, and they shall be attached to the earth electrode by appropriate connectors.

    • The legs of a metallic tower (or the down conductors of a non-metallic tower) shall be bonded through short connections to the tower's earthing ring. The steel reinforcement of the tower's basement, if any, shall also be connected to the earthing ring (see Figures 1 and 5).

    • The steel reinforcement of the building's structure shall be bonded to the earthing ring at least at its four corners. If the building is metallic, its feet shall be bonded to the earthing ring.

    • The earthing ring of the building shall be connected to the main earthing bar (MEB) located inside the building, preferably on the wall that faces the tower. The earthing conductor shall be as short as possible and have 50 mm2 as the minimum cross-section area.

    • All conductors in contact with the earth should be made of copper or steel covered with copper and have 50 mm2 as the minimum cross-section area. Galvanized steel conductors could also be used, with 90 mm2 as the minimum cross-section area.

    • A fence usually surrounds the terrain where the RBS is located. If the fence is metallic, some precautions have to be taken in order to minimize the hazard due to the voltages transferred by the fence.


    Bonding at the feed through window

    Bonding at the feed-through window

    The cable manufacturers usually provide appropriate earthing kits for these connections

    Figure 6 – Example of earthing the feeder cable at the feed-through window


    Use of spds

    Use of SPDs

    Figure 7 – Diagram of the electric board


    Installation of spd in the electric board

    Installation of SPD in the electric board

    Figure 8 – Scheme for SPD installation on TT power systems

    The SPDs shall comply with [IEC 61643-11]

    The SPD installed in the electric board shall coordinate with the SPD

    installed in the power meter station [see IEC 61643-12 for coordination]

    Annex A of [ITU-T K.66] gives information on SPD installation

    for different power systems.


    Protection of telecommunication lines

    Protection of telecommunication lines

    Figure 11 – Installation of SPD in the distribution frame

    The procedures for the protection of telecommunication lines

    against direct and indirect lightning discharges can be found

    in [ITU-T K.47] and [ITU-T K.46], respectively, taking into

    account [ITU-T K.72].


    Example of earthing and bonding configuration inside an rbs

    Example of earthing and bonding configuration inside an RBS

    More information on the implementation of earthing and bonding

    configurations can be found in [ITU-T K.27] and [ITU‑T K.35


    Decoupling with power network

    Decoupling with power network

     D1 : Distance entre la prise de terre des masses du poste de transformation HTA/BT et la prise de terre du Neutre BT,

     D2 : La distance entre a prise de terre des masses du poste de transformation HTA/BT et la prise de terre du Site de Radiocommunication,

     D3 : Distance entre a prise de terre du Neutre BT et la prise de terre du Site Radiocommunication


    Decoupling with power network1

    Decoupling with power network


    Conclusion

    CONCLUSION

    Protection of Base Stations is based on the combination of :

    • Lightning protection for the building

    • Protection on incoming lines (SPDs)

    • Resistibility of equipment

    • Earthing and bonding of installation

    • Decoupling with power network

      Recommendation ITU-T K.56 provides useful information for the protection of RBS and refers to other relevant Recommendations


    Thank you

    Thank you


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