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CHAPTER 1. Contemporary Physical Education Programs and Instruction. Evolution of PE Programs. Early physical training programs: Military-type discipline Provided school with manual labor Expansion of PE goals/purposes in 1880s: Should be hygienic, educative, re-creative, and remedial

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Chapter 1


Contemporary Physical Education Programs and Instruction

Evolution of pe programs
Evolution of PE Programs

  • Early physical training programs:

    • Military-type discipline

    • Provided school with manual labor

  • Expansion of PE goals/purposes in 1880s:

    • Should be hygienic, educative, re-creative, and remedial

  • Should improve self-discipline and character

  • The Boston Conference 1889: The Swedish System won the “Battle of the Systems”

New physical education clark hetherington 1910
“New Physical Education” (Clark Hetherington, 1910)

  • Organic education—development of muscular and skeletal vigor

  • Psychomotor education—development of skill in neuromuscular activities

  • Character education—development of moral, social, and personal characteristics

  • Intellectual education—development of cognitive, expressive knowledge

A physically educated person naspe 1992
A “Physically Educated Person”(NASPE, 1992)

  • Has learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical skills

  • Participates regularly in physical activity

  • Is physically fit

  • Knows implications of and benefits from involvement in physical activity

  • Values activity and its contributions to a healthful lifestyle

Diversity and rapid expansion in pe programs since the 1960s
Diversity and Rapid Expansion in PE Programs since the 1960s

  • State and national standards for PE

  • Separation of developmentally appropriate activities for different grade levels

  • Different and competing theories for designing program content

  • Research concerning children’s and youth’s fitness needs


Diversity and expansion of pe programs continued
Diversity and Expansion ofPE Programs (continued)

  • Development of new movement forms

  • Title IX—equal opportunities for girls and young women

  • Legislation and policies for including students with special needs

  • Increased ethnic diversity in U.S. schools

Evolution of instruction from method to model
Evolution of Instruction—From Method to Model

  • Direct, formal instruction

  • Teaching strategies—less direct and formal; more flexible

  • Teaching styles—determined by control of decision making at different times in class (Mosston, 1966; Mosston & Ashworth, 2002)

  • Other approaches/teaching skills—any action that increases student learning

  • Instructional models—a broader conceptualization of ways to instruct

New view of instruction instructional models
New View of Instruction—Instructional Models

Includes consideration of:

  • Learning theory

  • Long-term learning goals

  • Context and content

  • Classroom management

  • Related teaching strategies

  • Verification of process

  • Assessment of student learning

Overview of instructional models
Overview of Instructional Models

  • Are a comprehensive and coherent plan for teaching

  • Designed to be used for an entire unit of instruction

  • Go beyond the limitations of teaching methods, styles, and skills

  • Provide most effective way to reach aims for learning within great diversity of content

  • Can be used as a blueprint for a teacher to follow

What is included in models
What Is Included in Models?

  • For a unit:

    • Planning

    • Design

    • Implementation

    • Assessment functions

  • Multiple teaching methods, strategies, styles, or skills

Models and standards for pe
Models and Standards for PE

  • Each model identifies a set of outcomes that should be demonstrated if the model is applied correctly.

  • All outcomes can be directly linked to one or more NASPE standards.

Factors in instruction
Factors in Instruction

  • Intended learning outcomes

  • Context and teaching environment

  • Student development stage and readiness

  • Student learning preferences

  • Domain priorities


Factors in instruction continued
Factors in Instruction (continued)

  • Task structure and organizational patterns

  • Sequencing of learning tasks

  • Assessment of learning outcomes

  • Assessment of instructional practices

Reasons for using a model based approach in pe
Reasons for Using a Model-Based Approach in PE

  • Helps the teacher make a deductive decision about instruction

  • Matches context, content, and goals for each unit

  • Is supported by research

  • Is a blueprint to follow in designing and implementing instruction


Reasons for using a model based approach continued
Reasons for Using a Model-Based Approach (continued)

  • Provides teacher with feedback about effectiveness of instruction

  • Leads to increased clarity about expected behaviors, roles, decisions, and responsibilities

  • Allows teachers to adapt the model to the unique needs of learners and the context

  • Provides new opportunities for students!!!

  • Questions?

  • Issues and/ or concerns…

  • Comments!!!